• Created by: -Cleo
  • Created on: 13-02-18 12:49
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  • DNA, protein synthesis
    • The nucleus has the chromosome, of which part correspond to different genes, which have one allele per parent.
      • Each nucleotide has a sugar group, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
        • Nucleotides are inside the polymer of Doexyribonuclei acids.
        • A->T,  C->G
          • These form hydrogen bonds, which give a double-helix structure.
      • We all have 23 PAIRS of chromosomes with only one single chromosome determining sex
    • A change in DNA is a mutation.
      • This entails a change in the order of amino acids, making a unique shape.
        • The substrate will no longer fit if it is an enzyme, and specific areas may affect how it is expressed on the person.
      • Certain chemicals and high-energy radioation can increase rate of mutations
        • Mutations are not often useful, although these types are beneficial to natural selection
    • Gregor Mendel discovered genes, but was ridiculed as scientists had not found this, and he was a monk
      • Each gene has two alleles, from mum and dad. The combination is the genotype.
        • How these are expressed is the phenotype
        • If the two are idetnical, they are homozygous, otherwise they are heterozygous


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