Detente

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  • Détente, 1962-81. The period of improved relations between the US & the SU, easing tension and cooperating  to avoid conflict.
    • The Theory of Détente
      • US Definition
        • Détente will minimize confrontation and act as a strategy for controlling conflict with the USSR.
      • Soviet Definition
        • A means of overcoming the Cold War. Disputes would be resolved via negotiation. The interests of each side would be respected and recognised.
      • Sino- American Relations
        • 'Artichoke’ approach of peeling away restrictions began in 1969.
        • 1971 US team invited to Peking World ping-pong Championship.
        •   1972 China publically acknowledges USSR as the greater threat to China.
      • European Détente
        • Ostpolitik
          • *Europe abandoned the Hallstein Doctrine. *Many pacts.
          • The Basic Treaty - 1972
            • Basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Raepublic. Planned to normalise the relations between them.
        • -Working.-Refused to suspend.- Not a pawn in US power strategy.
        • Trade links continued and expanded.
    • The Successes of Détente
      • Summits
        • Moscow Summit - 1972
          • SALT I 1972 (Moscow summit) 1)
            •   Anti-Ballistic missile Treaty
              •  Each restricted to 100 missiles.  Anti ballistic missile technology was restricted.
            • Interim Agreement 
              • Limited no. of missile launchers to: USA: 1054, USSR: 1618
          • Basic Principles Agreement 1972 (Moscow summit)
            •   Made up of 12 fundamental principles to underpin the US-Soviet relationship, e.g. acceptance that superpowers would co-exist peacefully
        • The Washington Summit (Brezhnev & Nixon) - 1973
          •   Prevention of nuclear weapons.
        • The Geneva Summit (Brezhnev & Nixon) - 1974
          • 10 year agreement for economic, industrial and technical cooperation
        • The Vladivostok Summit (Ford & Brezhnev) - 1974
          • Framework provided to ratify SALT later
      • Agreements
        • 1963- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
          • Signed by the USSR, USA and UK. Banned the testing of nuclear weapons on the ground and in the atmosphere but not underground.
        • 1967 Outer-Space Treaty
          • Signed by the USSR, USA and UK. Banned the placement and testing of nuclear weapons in space and on the moon.
        • 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
          • Agreement to limit the spread of nuclear capability to non-nuclear countries. The five were USA, USSR, UK, China and France.
        • 1971 Seabed Treaty
          • USSR, USA and UK. Banned the placement of nuclear weapons on the seabed.
        • 1975 Helsinki Agreement
          • Three ‘baskets’ of agreements.
            • Both sides recognise the current borders of European countries.
            • Respect human rights and freedoms in their respective countries.
            • Help each other economically and technologically.
        • 1972 SALT I
          • Nixon and Brezhnev,  limits on nuclear missile numbers. However, proliferation continued as the limits were so high.
        • 1979 SALT II
          • Agreement over limiting the production of long-range missiles.  Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979 and the Cold War began again.
    • The Failures of Détente
      • Brezhnev Doctrine
        • Brezhnev Doctrine stated that Iron Curtain countries would not be allowed to abandon communism, "even if it meant a third world war".
      • Competition Between themselves
        • Arab Israeli conflict - Oct 1973
          • Oil crisis, both sides breached basic principles treaty.
        • Angolan civil war - 1975
          • USSR invade Nicaragua.-Soviet Union aids Cuba and intervene.
        • Afghanistan - 1979
          • Saw it as USSR expansion, needed to be contained.
      • US Foreign Policy
        • Vietnam war
        • Watergate scandal
          • - Democratic National Committee broken into. -Nixon covers up and is forced to resign,
          • •US foreign policy shaky after WaterGate Scandal.
        • Carter- Human Rights.
          • Carter preoccupied with human rights, made USSR impatient.
      • SALT II
        •   Carter-Brezhnev summit in Vienna in 1979 agreed to further limit stockpiles of weapon.
        •  The US senate refused to ratify the treaty. à Further evidence of failure of foreign policy.
      • USSR
        • •Communist invasions in Nicaragua in 1979 and Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
          • . Concerned about Islamic extremism in the ME hence their actions in Afghanistan.
          • -Added to suspicion of US because of perceived tensions.
      • USA
        • •Reagan elected in 1980 (right wing Republican). Referred to USSR as an ‘evil empire'.
      • Carter Doctrine
        • Carter wanted to postpone SALT due to USSR.
        • 'Soviet Invasion was the biggest threat to peace, since WW2.'
        • Shut down diplomatic solution with an ultimatum.
        • Whole relation on this one event.
        • Fundamental shift in US policy.
        • Ensuring control over Soviet expansionism.
    • The Decline of Détente
      • Tensions in the Third World
        • Increasing Soviet Influence.
        • US support for anti-communist groups.
      • Soviet Violations in Human Rights
        • Helsinki accords- improve relations.
      • Brezhnev's Health
        • Soviet decision slowed.
      • Rise of Neo-Conservatives
        • Critiscism towards the USSR.
      • Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979
        • Carter refused to negotiate.
      • Afghanistan Invasion
      • Growing opposition in the USSR.
    • The Causes of Détente
      • The Cuban Missile Crisis
        • Attack seemed inevitable from either side.
        •   Discussions began between Khruschev and Kennedy that still threatened to bring the US and USSR to a nuclear war
        • Both sides threatened but came up with the First Arms Limitation Treaty of 1963.
        • •Close to nuclear war.  -Kennedy failed to invade Cuba. •American spy plane  was shot. •US naval blockade  kept USSR  missiles from coming. •USSR built military bases.
      • China
        •   •Fearful of her isolation in the world. •Fearful of  USA actions in Vietnam. 
        •   •China  worried by  worsening relations with USSR. •China’s stockpile of nuclear weapons was a lot smaller than that of USA.
      • USA
        • •Realized that there were better ways of containing communism. •Aware of the massive cost of weapons production and maintaining a huge armed force.
        •   •A peaceful relationship with the USSR would be beneficial to USA especially after the cost of the Vietnam War
      • USSR
        • -USSR wanted to improve living standards. .-China’s growing relationship with the USA. •USSR was spending a huge amount on weapons at the expense of basic household goods.
        • • Poor Living standards. •USSR   relationship with China was bad.-USA was  improving with China.

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