Families and households: Demography

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  • Demography
    • Births
      • Birth rate
        • The number of births per 1,000 of the population per year.
          • Reasons for the fall
            • A long-term decline in the birth rate since 1900
            • Changes in the position of woman
              • More women at work
              • changes in attitudes towards family life
              • Access to abortion and contraception
            • Fall in infant mortality rate
              • 'Improved housing, sanitation etc.
            • Children are an economic liability-cant afford to have a large family
        • A long-term decline in the birth rate since 1900
        • Fluctations after the world wars
      • Total fertility rate
        • More women remain childless nowadays and women are having children later
        • The average number of children a woman will have during her fertility years
    • The ageing population
      • The number of over 65's equals the amount of u15's
        • Increased life expectancy
        • Declining fertility
        • Low infant mortality
      • Effects of an ageing population
        • Rising dependency ratio
          • Working age people must provide for the older people through taxes etc.
        • Public services
          • Older people consume more health and social care services.
        • More one-person households
          • Now account for 1/7 households.
        • Ageism
          • Negative stereotyping sees older people as a burden
    • Deaths
      • Number of deaths
        • Around 600,000 per year reamins fairly stable
      • Death rate
        • Number of death per 1,000
          • Reasons for the fall in death rate
            • Improved nutrition
            • Medical improvements
            • Public health improvements
            • Increase in life expectancy (Around 90/94)
        • Halved from 19 in 1900
          • Reasons for the fall in death rate
            • Improved nutrition
            • Medical improvements
            • Public health improvements
            • Increase in life expectancy (Around 90/94)
    • Ageism
      • Those excluded from production have a dependent status and stigmatised identity.
      • Inequality among the old
        • Middle class have bigger pensions.
        • Womens lower earnings and roles as carers mean lower pensions.
    • Migration
      • Immigration
        • Minority ethnic groups acoount for 14% of the population
      • Emigration
        • Most emigrants go to USA,Canada or Australia
        • Push factor: Economic recession
        • Piull factor:Higher wages and better opportunities
      • Differentiation
        • Citizens have full rights
        • Denizens are priveleged foreigh nationals
        • Helots are disposable labour power
      • Migration and politics
        • Assimilationism encourages migrants to adopt culture
        • Multiculturaism accepts migrants seperate cultural identity

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