Cultural Variations

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  • Cultural Variations
    • Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
      • Wanted to look at the proportions of secure, insecure resistant and avoidant across a range of cultures.
        • Used a meta-analsis from 8 different countries. Total of 32 studies. 1990 children.
          • UK, USA (15), Netherlands, Germany, Israel , Japan, Sweden and China
      • Most common attachment across all cultures was secure attachment.
        • This supports Bowlby's idea that attachment is innate and is the universal norm.
        • Secure in Britain 75% whereas in China 50%
      • Israel had the greatest proportions of insecure resistant. 30%
        • Germany had the greatest insecure avoidant attachment. 35%
          • German parents want their children to be independent from a young age.
          • Least common in Japan.
        • 3% in Britian
    • Results showed much variations within cultures rather than between countries.
    • A03
      • Large Sample = Representative sample. which means accurate generalisations.
        • However, heavily criticised as data drawn doesn't represent African, South Asian or South American cultures.
          • Therefore data would be required from these cultures before universal conclusions can be made.
      • Differences within cultures. E.g. middle class UK parent and working class UK parent would have different child-rearing techniques.
        • It would be better for psychologists to gain more knowledge around specific cultures before making generalisations.
      • Cross-cultural can suffer from imposed etic, where researchers analyse findings in a biased manner in terms of their own cultural beliefs, wrongly imposing cultural-specific beliefs onto other cultures.
        • For instance, Ainsworth, an American, assumed that separation anxiety was an indication of secure attachment but it may represent something else in other countries.


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