Cultural Variation

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  • Cultural Variation
    • Meta Analysis
      • Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg carried out meta analysis of 32 studies in 8 different countries
      • Used strange situation
      • Studied different attachment types of 2000+ babies
      • Secure attachment: 50% China, 75% Britain/Sweden
      • Avoidant: More in Germany
      • Resistant: More in Japan
    • Individualistic
      • Personal independence/achievement valued
      • North America/Germany
      • Children make own choices, have more freedom
      • Grossman and Grossman found half of German sample insecure/avoidant
    • Collectivist
      • High degree of interdependance
      • Japan, China and Israel
      • Children rarely separated from mother, choices benefit family
      • Takahashi- 32% Japanese children resistant, ** had to be stopped
    • Evaluation
      • Strength: Large sample of 2000 children, more likely to be representative, easier to generalise, higher in PV
      • Weaknesses: Not representative of whole world, 18 studies in America, fathers not studied, deterministic, simplistic, ethical issues


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