Creating political stability in the FRG

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  • Creating political stability in the FRG
    • Safeguards
      • 5% hurdle
      • representative system
      • federal
      • lesser role of the president
      • There were extremist parties in 1949
      • there were 12 parties in 1949, which ran the risk of political fragmentation
      • Right wing SRP was banned 1952
      • KPD was banned in 1956.
    • Adenauer's political system
      • showed he could integrate a wide range of political views
      • an effective party machine
      • Broad appeal. from working to upper class and urban to country side populations
      • CDU were predominantly Catholic, which appealed to the FRG population.
        • Just over half were Catholic
      • he worked to gain the support of those most politically motivated
      • especially focused on the 9 million fugees
    • Adenauer's longevity
      • hos successful policies
      • Pragmatic approach e.g. "no experiments"
        • appealed to those who just wanted a quite life
      • appealed to those who just wanted a quite life
      • 60% of the population "preferred property, jobs and the possibility of a substantial income to all democratic freedoms"
        • Willetts
    • The rehabilitation and use of former Nazis
      • Most controversial aspect of Adenauer's policies
      • it meant Adenauer was able to draw on the talents of a capable administration and politicians
      • Adenauer's new foreign ministry consisted of 39/49 former Nazis
      • Minister for refugees, Oberlander, was forced to resign in 1960 because he was a former SS man
      • Globke, secretary of state, was the official author of the commentary on the Nuremberg Race laws of 1935
    • Easing off on denazification
      • Under a series of amnesties war criminals were steadily eased back into civilian life
      • many crimes were never investigated
      • 1951 Reinstatement Act, Former Nazis who had lost their jobs were now given them back with full pensions (in the civil service.
        • in 1950's 40-80% of civil servants were former Nazis
      • in 1950's 40-80% of civil servants were former Nazis
      • Entrepreneurs were allowed to use their fortunes gained during the Nazi period
      • Fulbrooke claimed there was some form of "amnesia" surrounding Nazism
      • Frei claims Nazism was "actively addressed" by reducing the need for former Nazis to live in shame or fear retribution
      • the situation of ignoring Nazi war crimes was challenged and viewed much differently in the 60's
        • Auschwitz trials
    • Anti-communist feeling in the 1950's
      • People were put off the KPD after developments in Europe
        • They were banned i 1956
      • SPD was tarnished with a red brush
      • SPD weaknesses helped Adenauer
      • Schumacher (SPD leader) made the mistake of opposing moves to align with the West. he had also said the CDU's economic policies would be disastrous
        • Judy claimed their opposition to CDU policies contributed to the FRGs stability
      • SPD personally divided over rearmament
      • Bad Godberg programme 1959
      • SPD leader in 1952, Ollenhauer was colourless
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    • Reconstruction of towns and cities
      • April 1950, construction law (grants to Lander and cities for building projects)
      • 4 million new dwellings were built by 1957
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