Covalent substances

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  • Created by: Zoe
  • Created on: 23-01-13 20:17
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  • Covalent Substances
    • simple molecular substances
      • Forces of attraction between these molecules > weak
        • Feeble intermolecular forces > melting/ boiling points > low
          • molecules are easily parted (intermolecular forces break when simple molecular substances melt or boil)
      • Atoms form strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of several atoms
      • Mainly gases or liquids
        • At room temperature
      • Don't conduct electricity
        • No ions > no electrical charge
    • Macromolecules
      • Giant covalent structures
      • Similar to giant ionic structures > Lattices
      • Atoms bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds
        • High melting points
          • Don't conduct electricity
      • Diamond/ Graphite
        • Both made from carbon atoms and silicon dioxide
      • Diamond
        • Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds in a rigid giant covalent structure
        • Hardest natural substance
        • Used for drill tips
      • Graphite
        • Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds
          • Creates layers that slide over each other
          • Each carbon has 1 delocalised electron
        • Soft and slippery
        • Weak intermolecular forces between layers
        • Only non metal > good conductor of heat/ electricity
      • Silicon Dioxide
        • Silica
        • What sand is made of
          • Each grain of sand is one giant structure of silicon and oxygen
  • Diamond
    • Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds in a rigid giant covalent structure
    • Hardest natural substance
    • Used for drill tips

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