Covalent Bonds- SHARING ELECTRONS
Atoms share electrons with each other so they have full outer shells.
The atoms will only share electrons from there outer shell (highest energy level).
This makes both atoms feel as if they have a full outer shell.
Each covalent bond provides one extra shared electrom from each atoms.
A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons.
Each atom involved has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its outer shell.
Covalent Bonds - COVALENT SUBSTANCES: TWO KINDS
SUBSTANCES WITH COVALENT BONDS CAN EITHER BE SIMPLE MOLECULES OR GIANT STRUCTURES
The atoms form VERY STRONG covalent bonds to form SMALL molecules of several atoms.
The forces of attraction between the molecules are VERY WEAK
Result of the feeble of INTERMOLCULAR FORCES is that the melting and boiling points are VERY LOW, because the molecules are easily parted from eachother.
The INTERMOLCULAR FORCES that get broken when simple colecular substances melt or boil.
Most molecular subatnces are GASES OR LIQUIDS at room temperature, but they can be SOLIDS
Molecular substances DON'T CONDUCT ELECTRICITY- there are no ions so there's NO ELECTRICAL CHARGE.
COVALENT SUBSTANCES: TWO KINDS
GIANT COVALENT STRUCTURES ARE MACROMOLECULES
Similar to the giant ionic structures EXCEPT that there are no charged ions
All atoms are bonded to eachother by strong covalent bonds
This makes they have VERY HIGH melting and boiling points
The DON'T conduct electricity- not even when a liquid
Examples: DIAMOND AND GRAPHITE, they are both only made from carbon atoms and cilicon dioxide.