Bonding & Intermolecular Forces Series - Covalent Bonding Mindmap

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  • Covalent Bonding
    • Molecules form when two or more atoms bond together
      • They can be the same or different atoms
        • Covalent Bonds can be single, double or triple bonds
    • Example
      • Water
      • Carbon Dioxide
      • Nitrogen
    • Simple Covalent Compounds
      • Compounds that are made up of lots of individual molecules are called simple covalent compounds.
        • Atoms in the molecules are held together by strong covalent bonds
          • But the molecules within the compound are held together by much weaker forces called intermolecular forces.
            • It is these intermolecular forces that determine the properties of a simple covalent compound.
    • Giant Covalent Compounds
      • Giant covalent structures are a type of crystal strucure
        • Graphite
          • The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged in sheets of flat hexagons with three bonds each.
          • The fourth outer election of each carbon atom is delocalised
          • The sheets are held together by weak can der Walls forces (type of intermolecular force)
          • Properties of Graphite
            • The weak forces between the layers are easily broken so the sheets can slide over each other. Graphite feels slippery and is used as a dry lubricant in pencils
            • The delocalised electrons in graphite are free to move along the sheets so an electric current can flow
            • The layers are quite far apart compared to the length of the covalent bonds, so graphite has a low density and is used to make strong lightweight sports equipment
            • Because of the strong covalent bonds in the sheets, graphite has a high melting point. The strong bonds also means it is insoluble in any solvent
        • Diamond
          • Diamond is made up of carbon atoms which are covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms
            • This creates a tetrahedral shape. It has a crystal lattice structure
          • Properties of Diamond. Because of its strong covalent bonds:
            • Diamond has a very high melting point
            • Diamond is extremely hard. It is used in diamond-tipped drills and saws
            • Vibrations tavel easily through the stiff lattices, so it is a good thermal conductor
            • It cannot conduct electricity. All the outer electrons are held in localised bonds.
            • Diamond will not dissolve in any substance
      • They are sometimes referred to as macro-molecular structures
    • Co-ordinate bonds (Dative Covalent bonds)
      • In a dative covalent bond, one of the atoms provides both of the shared electrions
      • These form when one of the atoms in the bond has a lone pair of electrons and the other does not have any electrons available to share
      • Example - Hydroxonium Ion

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