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  • Coordination
    • why it is needed
      • coordinate the functions of different cells and systems to operate effectively
        • muscles need to respire constantly therefore need a good supply of oxygen in order to contract
          • dependent on red blood cells for this
        • in plants flowering needs to be coordinated with seasons- pollinators need to coordinate with plants
        • temperature climates light sensitive chemicals allow plants to coordinate the development of buds with lengthening days- signals approach of summer and spring]
    • homeostasis
      • different organs have different functions in the body
      • functions of organs must be coordinated in order to maintain a constant internal environment
      • eg digestive organs such as exocrine pancrease, duodenum, ileum, endocrine pancreas and liver work together to maintain constant blood glucose concentration
    • cell signalling
      • coordination relies on communication
      • one cell releases a chemical which has an effect on another cell known as the target cell
      • cells can then:
        • transfer signals locally eg between neurones at synapses-signal is a neurotransmitter
        • transfer signals across large distances using hormones eg cells in the pituitary gland secrete ADH which allows cells in the kidneys to maintain water balance in the body
    • coordination in plants
      • they must respond to external and internal changes in the environment
      • eg plants stem grow towards light source to maximise photosynthesis- achieved through use of plant hormones


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