Coordination AQA BIOL5

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  • Coordination
    • The nervous system
      • Short lived
        • sent via neurones
          • Rapid
            • Localised
    • The hormonal system
      • Long lasting
        • Sent via the blood
        • slow
          • Widespread
    • Chemical Mediators
      • Histamine
        • Swelling
        • Cause dilation of small arteries and arterioles
        • Increased permeability of capillaries
      • Prostaglandins
        • Cause dilation of small arteries and arterioles
        • Increased permeability of capillaries
        • Blood pressure and neuro transmitters
    • Plant Growth Factors
      • Light
        • Gravity
          • Water
  • The hormonal system
    • Long lasting
      • Sent via the blood
      • slow
        • Widespread
  • IAA diffuses from tip
    • IAA moves to shaded side
    • Plant Growth Factors
      • Light
        • Gravity
          • Water
  • Cell body
    • Neurones
      • The nervous system
        • Short lived
          • sent via neurones
            • Rapid
              • Localised
      • Sensory Neurone
        • From receptor to intermediate
          • Intermediate Neurone
            • From sensory to motor
              • Motor Neurone
                • From intermediate to effector
                  • Neurones
                    • Sensory Neurone
                      • From receptor to intermediate
                        • Intermediate Neurone
                          • From sensory to motor
                            • Motor Neurone
                              • From intermediate to effector
      • Dendrons and dendrites
        • Axon
          • Schwann Cells
            • Myelin sheath
              • Node of Ranvier
                • Localised circuits
                • Saltatory conduction
          • Higher temperature the faster the nerve impulse
    • Some sodium channels open
      • Sodium influx causes more sodium channels to open
        • Positive Feedback
    • At 40mV sodium channels shut
      • Potassium channels open
        • Potassium moves out of axon
          • Outside more negative than inside
    • Hyper polarisation
      • Overshoot of potassium ions leaving axon
        • Inside of axon more negative than resting potential
      • Refractory period
        • Repolarised
        • Action potentials can only go in one direction
          • Produces discreet, separated action potentials
            • Limits amount of action potential
    • Synapses
      • Allows single stimulus to create simultaneous responses
      • Multiple impulses can be combined at a synapse to produce single response
      • Unidirectional
        • Neuro transmitter recptors only on post synaptic membrane
      • Summation
        • Spatial summation
          • Multiple neurones combining neuro transmitter
            • Too exceed threshold value and trigger new action potential in next neurone
              • Single neurone releasing neuro transmitter over time
        • Temporal summation
          • Single neurone releasing neuro transmitter over time
      • Inhibition
        • Inward diffusion of chloride ions on post synaptic membrane
          • Hyperpolarises membrane making more neurotransmitter needed for action potential to occur
      • Transmission
        • Action potential  reaches presynaptic neurone
          • Causes calcium ion channels to open and calcium ions to enter knob
            • Calcium causes vesicles full of acetylcholine to fuse to presynaptic membrane
              • Acetylcholine is released into synaptic cleft and diffuses across the gap
                • Acetylcholine binds with sodium ion channel receptors making them open
                  • Influx of sodium ions causes a new action potential to occur in post synaptic neuorne
                    • Acetylcholin esterase hydrolyses acetylcholine into choline and ethanoic acid
                      • These products diffuse back across synaptic cleft into presynaptic neurone
                        • ATP is released by the mitochondria and recombines choline and ethanoic acid to acetylcholine
    • Summation
      • Spatial summation
        • Multiple neurones combining neuro transmitter
          • Too exceed threshold value and trigger new action potential in next neurone
        • Temporal summation

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