CONTROL SYSTEMS CO-ORDINATION + REGULATION PROCESSES

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  • CONTROL SYSTEMS CO-ORDINATION & REGULATION PROCESSES
    • HOMEOSTASIS
      • homeostasis = process of keeping internal body environment steady (blood, glucose, osmoregulation)
      • negative feedback = changes that result in a return to normal level
      • positive feedback = changes that result in stimulations of further changes (this can be very dangerous)
      • sensor (deviation) - receptor (detects) - co-ordinator (correction) - detector (off)
    • KIDNEY
      • removes nitrogenous metabolic waste
      • proteins into amino acids
        • transamination
          • amino group forms a ketoacid + amino acid
        • deamination
          • amino minus an amino acid forms ammonia + ketoacid (catalysed by glutamate dehydrogenase)
        • urea synthesis
          • 2 ammonia + carbon dioxide forms urea + water (3ADP +Pi made)
      • The Kidney Structure & The Nephron
    • STEP 1: ULTRAFILTRATION
      • Ultrafilteration in the Bowman's Caspule
      • Glomerulus to Bowman's Capsule
    • STEP 2: REABSORPTION
      • Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
      • across Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • STEP 3: SALT BATH
      • Formation of a Salt Bath in the Loop of Henle
      • along Loop of Henle
    • STEP 4: HOMEOSTASIS & SECRETION
      • across distal convoluted tubule
      • Homeostasis & Secretion in the Distal Convoluted Tubule
    • STEP 5: WATER REABSORPTION
      • down the collecting duct
      • Water Reabsorption in the Collecting Duct
    • OSMOREGULATION
      • occurs in the collecting duct
      • blood water potential is controlled by the hypothalamus
      • ADH = a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary gland which increases the collecting ducts permeability to water by opening aquaporin channels
      • Osmoregulation in the Collecting Duct
      • osmoregulation = balance of water & solutes dissolved
    • ADAPTATIONS TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
      • aquatic environments
        • ammonia diffuses out across the gills
        • ammonia is diluted by water & is no longer toxic
        • short Loop of Henle
        • cortical nephrons
      • birds & insects
        • excrete ureatic acid which is insoluble
          • LARGE amount of energy loss
          • not toxic, no water loss
      • mammals
        • excrete urea
          • less toxic
          • energy loss
      • desert environments
        • longer Loop of Henle for more water reabsorption & less water loss
        • juxtamedullary nephron

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