Conservatism mindmap pt6

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  • New Right conservatism
    • Definition
      • The combination of neoliberal and neoconservative ideas. Neoliberalism were concerned with free market economics and individualism. Neoconservatism was concerned with the fear of social fragmentation through tough law and order and public morality
    • Key ideas
      • - Emerged in the 1960s and 1970s in America but its influence spread around the world, associated with Thatcher and Reagan
      • - By the mid-1970s there was spirally inflation, unemployment, unsustainable welfare spending, increased crime rates, moral laxity and a growing sense that society was becoming ungovernable due to trade union militancy- failures of Keynesianism
      • - Promote  anti-permissiveness, reduce economic decline and a bloated welfare state to resist socialism at home and communism abroad
    • Neo-liberalism (economic)
      • - Drastic reductions in tax, tight control on government spending (monetarism cuts in public spending), end to dependency culture arising from welfare states, deregulation and privatization of services, neutering of trade unions and 'obstructive bodies'
      • - Atomistic individualism. State interference subverts freedom, Nozick said "the state's claim to legitimacy induces citizens to believe they have some duty to obey its verdict, pay its taxes, fight its battles"
      • - Self-ownership where individuals retain their bodies, abilities and labour under minimal state obligations. Nozick's idea was influenced by Locke's rationalism and Kant who believes an individual can't be used as a thing or resource in society
      • - Miniaturist government with its primary function to protect human rights. 'Roll back on state' to preserve individual freedom as humans are RATIONAL
      • - Rand argues for objectivism- truth is found in scientific fact. Praises egoism "selfishness is not a vice but a virtue". Altruism is not a duty but a rational choice.
      • - Nationalised industries lacked free market dynamism. Role of government is to control inflation through monetarism which emphasises need for government to monopolise control of money. Individuals should rise and fall on their own abilities
      • -- Thatcher believed unemployment in 1970s was due to state intervention in economy, overprotecting failing industries that made British products noncompetitive internationally through inflation in prices and wages
    • Neo- conservatism (social)
      • - Tough approach to law and order, robust approach to national defence including a less conciliatory approach to enemies e.g Soviet Union. Less tolerant approach to immigration. Anti-permissive social policies (homosexuality and abortion) and the promotion of 'traditional' family structures
      • - Want an increased state involvement and maintaining an organic society from social fragmentation
      • - Fear of social fragmentation, critical of neoliberal ideas which fragment society by failing to defend core conservative values such as religion and traditions
      • - Unease of social fragmentation began during the social and sexual revolution pf the 1960s. Secular rejections of religion. Belief in an organic society with religion, traditions and authority at its center
      • - Believe the postwar consensus created a dependency culture and that anti-poverty programmes fail because they ignore human imperfections. The state is a safety net for the struggling but not hand stuff out e.g right to buy, means tested benefits
        • - Welfare Reform Act 2012 designed to wean benefit claimants by incentivising them to go back to work, way to reintegrate the underclass as said by work and pensions minister Ian Duncan-Smith
      • - Post 1960s there was a decline leading to immorality, critical of atomism as it rejections communal customs, Religion promotes humility and responsibility. Thatcher and Reagan put drug users in prison- neoconservatives see drugs as a choice for the individual not for the state. Promote foreign policy and military intervention to protect state e.g anti-soviet, Blair and Iraq+Afghanistan
    • Contradictory?
      • - Neo-liberals want state rollback (prrivatisation) but neo-conservatism want a 'roll forward' (restriction on TU)
      • - Neo-liberals want to advance individual liberty (income tax cuts) but neo-conservatives are prepared to restrict it (extend police stop and search powers)
      • - Neo-liberals are relaxed about immigration but neo-conservatives are wary
      • - Neo-liberals wish to minimise government spending to achieve a 'minarchist state'- Nozick but neo-conservatives are prepared to increase it to strengthen nation profile (Defend Falklands and upgrade nuclear deterrent)


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