Congress of Vienna issues

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  • Problems dealt with at the Congress of Vienna
    • France - creating strong buffer states around it (Cordon Sanitaire)
      • Belgium (old Austrian Netherlands) and Holland (the old United Provinces) = the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, under the Dutch king
        • frontier to be reinforced by restoration of old 'barrier' fortresses
        • Luxembourg to have a Prussian garrison
      • Prussian territory to be extended on the left bank of the Rhine and into the old Napoleonic kingdom of Westphalia, along the lower/middle Rhine
        • Bavaria and Baden strengthened
        • Prussia = protector of Germany; able to support king of Netherlands if necessary
      • Swiss Confederation of 22 cantons to be recognised by all Great Powers incl. France
      • Italy: formerly independent Republic of Genoa to be incorporated into Kingdom of P-S to strengthen border with France
        • east of Piedmont: Lombardy to be controlled by Austria (= military back-up)
    • Ensuring the security of Italy and Germany
      • the powers were determined to break up Napoleon's French influence on Italy, so broke it up into smaller states, like they had been pre-Napoleon
      • Austria acquired Lombardy and Venetia to make up for loss of the Austrian Netherlands
        • provided strong Austrian influence behind the enlarged Piedmont-Sardinia
      • restoration of the Habsburgs' related rulers in Parma, Modena, Tuscany
        • established Austrian influence
      • Pope restored to the Papal states with Austrian troops
      • old Holy Roman Empire (360 states) not re-established: replaced by loose union of 38 states --> German Confederation
        • hoped this could resist attack effectively
        • included most of Prussia, German Austria, Kingdom of Bohemia
    • Poland and Saxony
      • large section of Galicia retained by Austria
      • Prussia got Posen, 2/5 of Saxony (40% of population, 60% of land) and large section of Rhineland and Pomerania
        • didn't consider latter worth having: Rhineland was industrially advanced, so later provided wealth for German empire
      • Metternich had been unhappy about Russo-Prussian Kalisch treaty in 1813 (wanted Austrian control over Germany, fearing Russian expansion)
        • however: Russian troops in both Saxony and Poland at the end of the wars
          • Russia wanted Poland to become a strong satellite state and promised to give Prussia Saxony
            • Russia gains most of Poland ('Congress Poland' - own constitution, but satellite ruled by Tsar)
        • Castlereagh was also suspicious of the Tsar: tried to persuade Prussia to say no to Saxony
          • Tsar: realised he had to compromise, negotiated with Castlereagh
      • Russia gains most of Poland ('Congress Poland' - own constitution, but satellite ruled by Tsar)
    • Other
      • Habsburg empire expanded by absorption of previously independent territories
        • Archbishopric of Salzburg
        • Austria acquired Illyrian provinces, formerly of the Venetian republic
      • Britain expanded its empire
        • Ionian islands in the Adriatic (formerly part of Venetian Republic)
        • retained Tobago and St Lucia (from France) and Trinidad (Spain)
        • formed British Guiana from 3 former Dutch colonies
        • Cape Colony in Africa (formerly Dutch)
        • gained Mauritius (previously French)
        • kept former Dutch Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
          • paid Holland £6m for Ceylon and £2m for Cape - money earmarked for construction of barrier fortresses on Belgian/French border)
        • took Heiligoland (Denmark)
      • Sweden acquired Norway from Denmark (previously loyal to Napoleon) - compensation for loss of Finland to Russia
      • navigation of rivers flowing through multiple countries declared open to commerce of all nations; no increase in duties
      • slave trade
        • France promised to prohibit
        • Spain and Portugal accepted cash sums to abandon it by 1820

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