Cognitive Psychology

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  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Eye Witness Testimony - evidence  given by a witness of a significant event, crime, serious accident. A verbal account of what happened.
      • Not always accurate, problems occur during encoding, storage and retrieval.
      • Central information - any info to do with main detail. Peripheral information - any info which is background info
    • Misleading Information - a question that is worsen in a bias way to influence how the respondent answers
      • Research - Loftus and Palmer
        • Showed P's a film of car accident. Changed 'hit' to either contacted, bumped, collided or sashed. The word used effect the estimation of speed. Ask P's how fast the car as going.
          • Smashed - 41mph, contacted-31mph. P's associated words with speed, therfore the way the question was worded effected the response.
            • High internal validity as IV (word) was isolated. Low external validity, lab experiment, anxiety would be lower, can't generalise. Purse study - the effect wasn't the same as it was central info. High applications as police have changed how they investigate EW and developed cognitive interviews.
      • Research on blatantly misleading questions - Loftus
        • P's divided into two groups, shown slides leading up to car accident. Sign either 'yield' or 'stop'. Asked 20 questions. After 20 minutes given 15 slides including both yield and stop.
          • 75% of 'stop' picked correct sign. 41% of yield picked correct sign. Misleading question deleted and replaced correct info and the effect worsened over time. Not real life
    • Age of Witness
      • Research - Yarmey 1993
        • Investigating the effects of age on EWT. Stopped 651 adults in street, asked to recall physical charecteristics of woman they spoke to 2 mites ago for 15 seconds.
          • Young and middle ages P's were more confident in their answer but no significant difference. Large sample meaning results were not due to chance and are feeble to generalise. Opportunity sample means biased. natural setting means high ecological validity. less control over extraneous variables
      • Anastasi and Rhodes
        • P's from 3 age groups 18-25, 35-45 and 55-78. Shown 24 photographs of different age groups. then showed 48, 24 of which they had already seen. Asked to identify.
          • Young and middle ages P's were more accurate. All age groups were most accurate in identifying their age group.
    • Anxiety of EWT
      • Research: Loftus
        • P's either heard a dissuasion in lab, mean emerged with grease on his hands holding a pen. Or heard heated discussion, man emerged with blood on his hands, holding a knife. P's given 50 photographs to identfy man.
          • Pen scenario - 49% accurate. Knife scenario - 33% accurate.
            • 'Weapon focus' where witness's fear and anxiety narrows the focus of attention on central  information which distracts from peripheral details.
      • Research: Yulle and Cutshall
        • 13 witness's to real life shooting in store with armed thief.
          • Witness's gave impressively accurate account 7 months after. the closest to the ever provided most detail. Misleading questions had no effect. most distressed were most accurate. height arousal of anxiety enhanced EWT accuracy. High validity.
      • Research: Parker and Carranzza
        • Compared primary and college students when identifying individual from mock crime. Children were more likely to choose someone but were less accurate.
      • Research:  Nemen et al.
        • Investigated the accuracy of younger and older P's when the elay of identification was short. No difference between age groups, however, when the delay was longer, 1 week, older witness's were significantly less accurate.
    • Cognitive Interveiws
      • The cognitive interview is a method of interviewing eyewitness's and victims about what they remember. recreate, report, recall and changed perspective.
      • Supporting Research: Gieslmen et al
        • To see if cognitive interviews were  more effective than standard interviews. 89 students showed police training videos, interviewed 48 hours later using standard and cognitive methods.
          • Cognitive - 41.5% correct. Standard - 29.4% correct. Cognitive interviews were significantly more affective, lab experiment, high internal, low external, replicable.
      • Challenging Research: Milne and bull
        • Found that just using 'report' and 'context' got best results.
      • Challenging Research: Gieslmen
        • Found children under 6 reported less accurately with cognitive interviews.
      • Recreating:  by recalling specific details (e.g. noise, smell) free recall then questions. Report: every detail even if i does not have use. Recall: the event in different order from specific memorable point. Change perspective: describing the incident from another persons perspective
      • officers claim cognitive interviews take longer than standard interviews and sometimes recall more incorrect information
    • Improving Memory
      • Acrostic: power of sentence where the first letter from each word comes from the information needed to be remembered (never eat shredded wheat)
      • Acronym : a word or sentence formed from the first letter of the words (BOGOF)
      • Method of Loci: material needed to be remebrd would be associated with place. Then mentally recreate the journey.
      • Spider diagrams and Mind maps: Visual drawings and grouping of infromation.
      • Research: Boher et al
        • to show that information in a hierarchy is better recalled then random information.P's learnt a list of words presented either randomly of in a hierarchy.
          • Catergory group: 73/112 words. random group 21/112 words. But rehearsal is an impact, how it was rehearsed e.g. elaborate
    • Multi-store model of Memory
      • Atkinson and Shifron 1968. 3 stores - sensory, STM and LTM. Linear
        • Sensory Memory
          • Information will remain for nano seconds and is stored visually.
        • STM
          • Information passed from sensory and encoded acoustically. Limited capacity of 7+/-2 and duration of up to 18 seconds
        • LTM
          • If rehearsed, information is transferd from STM to LTM. Encoded semantically, with an unlimited capacity and duration of up to a life time
        • Information can be lost through decay, interference and displacement if not rehersed
      • Supporting Research - Petersons and Peterson's Trigrams and Murdoch's primary recency effect
        • P: Trigrams - 18 seconds with 10% recall.
        • M: Words at the end of the list were most likely to be recalled, the engining then end. Supports 7+/-2
      • Challenging research - The case of Clive Wearing
        • Supports: STM info is lost just after 18 seconds. Challenges: still able to recall procedural LTM information e.g. walking
          • Suggests the LTM is multifaceted rather than unitary. The model fails to explain the entire system and too simplistic. But is self when diagnosing diseases e.g. skizophrenia
    • Encoding - the way information is stored and transferred dingo a form that can be stored in memeory
      • Sensory - visual. STM - acoustically. LTM - semantically
      • Research: Baddley
        • Explored the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in STM. P's divided into 4 groups. Heard 5 words. Either acoustically similar/dissimilar or semantically similar/dissimilar. Asked to recall.
          • Acoustically similar words hardest to recall (55%). Dissimialr (75%).The effect of sound similarity dispared when testing the LTM.
            • Conclusion - STM relies more on the sound of words rather than meaning. However, might not represent the complexity of encoding.
    • Duration - the length of time information can be stored in the memory.
      • Sensory - fractions of a second. STM - up to 18 seconds. LTM up to a lifetime
      • Research: Peterson and Peterson 1959
        • Tested how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented/ P's shown trigram and asked to count back in 3 to prevent rehearsal. After intervals 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 asked to recall.
          • 80% correct after 3 seconds. Progressively fewer as interval was shorter. 10% correct at 18 seconds
            • However, trig arms are artificial which may not reflect realistically.It may be interferance rather than decay, demand characteristics and P's may not have counted back in 3's.
      • Research: Bahrick et al 1975
        • To see if theres a difference between recognition and recall in the LTM. 392 graduates from high school, recognition group shown 5 photographs and names and asked to identify. recall group dimly asked to indetify
          • Recognition: 90% after 14 years. 60% after 47 years. Recall: 60% after 7 years. less than 20% after 47 years.
            • Conclusion - information can be remembered for a life time and recognition is better than recall when a meaning flu stimulus is used. After 47 years it is unclear
    • Capacity - how much information can be stored.
      • STM - 7+/-2. LTM - unlimited
    • The Working Memory Model
      • A model proposed due to criticism  that the STM in not unitary passive but an active processor.
      • Central executive, phonological lop, visuo-spatial scratch pad and episodic buffer
      • helps to understand how we deal simultaneously with visual and verbal information
      • Supporting Research  Baddleys dual task
        • Investigating the visuo-satial scratchpad capacity. Pinter at spot of light whilst imaging letter F
          • Doinf both visual tasks was difficult but P's wetter better at carrying out visual and verbal asks. Competing for limited capacity. Supports WMM, not unitary
      • Supporting Research Baddeley word length
        • Investigate the phonological loop. 5 words were shown to P's, multi syllables and one syllabled.
          • P's were better at recalling one syllabled words.
      • Helps diagnose working memory psychological disorders e.g. schizophernia. But an be certain what the central executive is and its function.
    • Comparing MSM and WMM
      • WMM suggests STM is an active multi component process whereas MSM suggests a passive store where rehearsal transfers information to the LTM. WMM gives a better account for STM

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