Cognitive Psychology - In Depth

The ENTIRE Cognitive Psychollogy topic to the AQA standard.

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  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Models of Memory
      • Working Memory Model
        • Explains why you can multi-task
        • Explains word-length effect
        • Explains memory defects of KF
        • Useful in diagnosis of mental illness
        • Validity is same as MSM
      • Multi-Store Model
        • Oversimplified
        • Strong evidence to support
          • Korsakoff's sydrome
        • Rehearsal is not always needed
        • used in dealing with Hyppocampal Damage
        • Use of word lists
        • Participants = Often Students
        • Lab Experiments
      • Memory is the process in which we retain info about the past
        • Encoding
          • STM
            • Baddely - 1966
              • Participants given 4 sets of words
                • Semantically Similiar/ Dissimiliar
                • Accoustacally Similiar/ Dissimiliar
                • Independent groups design
                  • No participant variables control
                • Patterns of confusion suggest that
                  • LTM relies more on semantic encoding
                  • STM relies more on Acoustic coding
              • lacks Ecological Validity
              • Disregards other LTM encoding methods
                • Episodic
                • Procedural
          • LTM
        • Duration
          • STM
            • Peterson x2 - 1959
              • Participants were shown nonsense triagrams
                • Asked to recall after 3-18 seconds
                  • While counting back from 3
                    • Interferance
                  • 3 seconds = 80% recalled
                    • While counting back from 3
                      • Interferance
                  • Rehersal prevented = STM no more than 18 seconds
                  • Reliable :D
                  • Lacks ecological validity
                  • Meaningful XPs lasts longer
                  • Different Triagrams = Greater confusion
          • LTM
            • Potentially Unlimited
              • Bahrick - 1975
                • 392 people
                  • List names of ex-classmates
                    • Free-Recall test
                    • then given photos to either
                      • Match the name to the person
                        • Name recognition test
                      • Recall the shown person's name
                        • Photo Recognition test
                • Shows VTLMs in real life
                  • Recognition>Recall
                    • Help needed to access LTM stores
            • Bahrick - 1975
              • 392 people
                • List names of ex-classmates
                  • Free-Recall test
                  • then given photos to either
                    • Match the name to the person
                      • Name recognition test
                    • Recall the shown person's name
                      • Photo Recognition test
              • Shows VTLMs in real life
                • Recognition>Recall
                  • Help needed to access LTM stores
        • Capacity
          • LTM
            • Potentially Unlimited
              • Loses Information by:
                • Decay
                • Interferance
          • STM
            • 7 +/- 2 chunks of information
              • Used in Post codes
            • Jacobs - 1887
              • Asked that participants remember a string of digits
                • Most remembered about 9/7
                  • Increased with age
                    • Concluded that
                      • Digits (10) easier than letters (26)
                      • STM is limited
                      • Lacks ecological validity
                  • Concluded that
                    • Digits (10) easier than letters (26)
                    • STM is limited
                    • Lacks ecological validity
    • Memory in Everyday Life
      • Strategies of Memory improvement
        • Mnemonics
          • Organizing material makes it easier to remember
            • Jenkins & Russell - 1952
              • Word lists that were highly associated
            • Tulving - 1962
              • Repeated word lists
                • They were becoming consistent as they were:
                  • Chunking
                  • Organising
          • First letter mnemonic
            • MVEMJSUN
          • Method of Loci
          • Peg word
          • Narrative stories
            • Bowyer and Clark 1969
              • Narrative stories aid recall from LTM
          • This doesn't help you understand it
          • If you forget it, thers no link to help renember
      • Eye Witness Testimony
        • Further research evidence
          • Loftus and Palmer - 1974
            • Experiment 1
              • Participants watched multiple car crash
                • "How fast when HIT?"
                  • HIT was replaced in different conditions
                    • Smashed
                    • Contacted
                    • Bumped
                    • Collided
            • Experiment 2
              • 3 groups watched a crash
                • 2 were given indications of speed while the 3rd got no indication
                  • 3 weeks later
                    • "Was there broken glass?"
                      • Smashed Most likely to say yes
                  • Hit
                  • Smashed
            • Leading questions affect accuracy
              • However
                • Challenged by Berkerian and Bowers
                  • Misleading information affects retreival
                • Video is not as emotinally arousing
                  • (Yuille and Cutshaw) Accurate recall in real-life sit. despite misleading info
          • Individual differences
            • Wells and olsen
              • Males and Females are the same
            • Schachter et al
              • Older = More difficult but = to kids
        • Affecting factors
          • Anxiety
            • Deffenbacher et al
              • Meta Analysis
                • Showed anxiety reduced accuracy
            • Loftus - 1979
              • Independent groups
                • Condition 1
                  • Man came out with pen
                    • 49% Correct
                • Condition 2
                  • Man came out with knife and blood
                    • 33% accurate
                • Shown 50 photographs after man came to identify him
              • High ecological validity
                • Ethically - Stressed participants
              • When anxious and aroused = Focus on weapon at expense of other details
          • Age of witess
            • Valentine & Coxon - 1997
              • 3 Independent groups watched a video of a kidnapping
                • Children
                  • Gave most incorrect to Leading questions
                • Young adults
                • Elderly
                  • Both gave most incorrect answers to non-leading
                    • Children
                      • Gave most incorrect to Leading questions
                • Then they were asked leading and non-leading Questons
              • Age has an effect on EWT
              • Lacks external Validity
            • Memon et al
              • Longer delay = Older less accurate
            • Parker and Carranza
              • Children make more errors
        • Cognitive Interview
          • What it is
            • Report everything
            • Recreate original context
            • Change the order of events
            • Change perspective
          • Geisleman - 1986
            • Independent groups
              • P's were either questioned from a staged event with either:
                • Cognitive interview
                  • Less likely to mistake the colour of the rucksack
                • Standard interview
                • Thief with Blue rucksack
              • Thief with Blue rucksack
            • Lacks ecological validity
          • Kohnken et al
            • Meta-analysis - 34% increase in accuracy
          • Time-Consuming
          • Greater demand on interviews with enhanced CI

Comments

Adelaide

Very in-depth :D Definitely needed to make sure you know everything :)

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