COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 21-05-11 14:16

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY - working memory model

WHAT IS THE DURATION OF STM?

WHAT DID PETERSON AND PETERSON INVESTIGATE?

WHAT WAS THEIR STUDY?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

WHAT DID THEY CONCLUDE?

WHAT ARE THREE THINGS THAT AFFECT THE DURATION OF STM?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Approx. 20 seconds

Peterson and Peterson wated to find out how long information stayed in the STM when rehersal is prevented

Preseted Participants with a constant triagram - Participants than counted back in threes from specific number - then asked to repeat trigrama

Found after 18 secs participant could recall fewer than 10% correctly

Concluded information disappears very rapidly from STM when rehersal is prevented

Rehersal - Intention to recall - Amount of information to be recalled

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT IS THE DURATION OF LTM?

WHAT DID BAHRICK ATTEMPT TO EXPLORE?

WHAT WAS THEIR STUDY?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

NAME 4 FACTORS AFFECTING DURATION IN LTM?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Unlimited

Length of time memories can be retained

Tested memory of graduates for their former classmates - used recognition and recall tasks

participants performed well up to 34 years and performace better on recognition tasks - dip in performace after 47 years

Experimantal techniques - Depth of learning - Pattern of learning - Nature of material to be learned

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT IS THE CAPACITY OF STM?

WHAT DID MILLNER BELIEVE OUR MEMORY SPAN IS DETERMINED BY?

WHY DOES COWAN BELIEVE MILNER OVERESTIMATED THE NUMBER OF CHUNKS THAT CAN BE HELD IN STM?

WHAT FACTORS AFFECT THE CAPACITY OF STM?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

7+/- 2 items

the number of chunks, rather than the number of indivdiual letters or digits, and we can hold 7+/- 2 chunks at a time

Cowan believes the perfomance on span tasks is not a true reflection of pue STM as it is often affected by rehersal and long term memory

Influence of long term memory - Reading aloud - Pronounciaton time - Individual differences

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

HOW DOES THE STM MEMORY MAINLY ENCODE?

WHAT WAS CONRAD'S STUDY?

WHAT DID HE FIND?

WHAT DID HE CONCLUDE?

HOW DOES THE LTM MAINLY ENCODE?

WHAT WAS BADDELEY'S STUDY?

WHAT DID HE FIND?

WHAT DID HE CONCLUDE?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Mainly encodes acoustically

6 letters - 2 conditions (acoustically similar / accouctically dissimilar)

more difficult to recall strings of letters that sounded the same

convert visually presented material to an acoustic code in STM

mainly semantically

10 words - 4 coditions (accoustically similar / accoustically dissimialr / semantically similar / semantically dissimilar)

words similar in meaning poorly recalled

LTM codes mainly sematically

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

DESCRIBE THE MULTI-STORE MODEL

WHAT IS THE SENSORY MEMORY?

WHAT WAS SPERLING'S STUDY?

WHAT DID SPERLING FIND?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/b/bf/20110215132619!Multistore_model.png)

hold information for a fraction of a second after physical stimulus is no longer avilable

B   J    G    W     - high tone

K   S    X    M     - medium tone      

P   F    H    Q     - low tone

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT WAS GLANZER AND CUNITZ STUDY?

WHAT DID THEY FIND?

HOW DID THEY EXPLAIN THEIR FINDINGS?

WHAT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVEDIENCE IS THEIR TO SUPPORT A DISTINCTION BETWEEN STM AND LTM?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

2 condiitons - (recall words immediatly after being presented / distracter task (count back in 3's before recall)

C1. found expected serial position curve C2. distracter task disruppted regency efffect words from last part of list not well recalled

distracter task had displaced last few words from STM, not effected primary portion as they had already been rehersed and passed onto LTM

Milner HM - suffered epilepsy - had brain surgery to remove parts of temporal lobe and hippocampus - could not lear or retain new information - STM intact LTM affected

KM - suffered brain injuries - LTM intact - STM effected (had regency effect only 1 item)

Alzheimers - low levels of neurotransmitter acetycholine = memory loss?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS OF THE MULTI STORE MODEL?

WHAT ARE THE WEAKNESSES OF THE MULTI STORE MODEL?

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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

  • First model to be put forward - foundation for later development work
  • Gives an account of structure and process
  • lots of research evidence to support (e.g. sensory memory - Sperling)
  • Brain damage and alzehimers support there are two stores
  • Over simplified
  • To much reliance on rehersal
  • Focus to much on structure and two little on process
  • KF had probems with verbal tasks but not on visual tasks, maybe more than one STM
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