Coastal Landscapes

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  • Coastal Landscapes
    • Impact of Erosion on people and Environment         Case Studies
      • A Doomed Village! Happisburgh
        • 25 property's and  the villages life boat station has been lost to the sea
      • Tower's days are numbered walton on the Naze
        • The tower of walton on the naze could soon be lost by the sea, if the cliff continues to erode at a present rate of one point 5 meters a year.
      • Train passengers get a  shower
        • Train passengers on the train travelling from Exeter to plymouth regularly get a shower because waves spash over train causing electronic to stop working.
      • Golfers paradise threatened
        • Number of golf courses are being threated around the uk and are losing their greens and fairways. The Royal Worth devon golf club is losing it's seventh and eighth hole to the sea
      • Barton on the sea becomes barton in the sea
        • Barton used to be a popular resort with a seaside cafe, manor logde hotel and a coastal path but it has all eroded into the sea.
    • Features of Coastal Erosion
      • Stacks & Stumps
        • 1. It starts with a headland, on hardrock when waves find cracks in the rock, which is Hydraulic Action
        • 2. The Hydralic Action, then erodes weak points in the rock forming faults, which over time forms a cave.
        • 3. The waves continue to hit against the cave, causing it to break though and form an arch.
        • 4. The weight on top the arch, is too much so it collapses and forms a stack
        • 5. The stack is separated away from the headlands. The stack is unprotected from waves hitting it from 360 (all directions), it than collaspes and forms a stump
      • Headlands & Bays
        • They are formed on vertically bands of hard and soft rock which is less resisent so erodes faster and this creates a bay between to headlands
      • How spits are formed
        • 1. They are formed by the process of long shore drift. (Explain The basic's)
        • 2. When this process hits a change in angle of the coastline it continues out to sea.
        • 3. Secondary Winds against the prevailing wind may cuse a hooked end. The water behind the spit becomes stagnated and behind it a Salt marsh is created
      • Bar
        • 1. Formed firstly by the process of Long Shore Drift. (Explain the process Briefly)
        • 2. The process reapeats itself, until a change in angle of the coast line such as a Headland.
        • 3. The direction contiues across the bay to the opposite headland and this creates a barrier and behind a largoon is formed.
      • Longshore drift
        • 1. Swash coming on to the beach at an angle and picking up beach material and it runs in the same direction as prevailing wind.
        • 2.  Backwash pulls material back out to sea at a 90 angle with the help of gravity
        • 3.The material catches another wave and moves back in with the swash.
        • 4. A reapeated motion of zig-zag of longshore drift
        • 5. The process is continues until it hits a groyne  along the beach.
    • Four Types of Coastal Erosion techniques
      • Hydraulic Action
      • Abrasion
      • Attricition
      • Solution
    • Types of Hard and Soft Engineering
      • Soft Engineering
        • Managed Retreat: Allowing see to slowly erode coast
          • Advantage: Cheap and creates new habitats for plants & Birds
          • Disadvantage: Lots of land is lost into the sea.
        • Beach Replenishment: Taking pebbles and stones from the sea and placing it on the beach.
          • Advantage: Looks Natural and does not effect natural growth
          • Disadvantage: The replenished sand erodes faster than the natural sand
        • Cliff Regrading: The cliff is cut back and given a gentle slope to stop slumping
          • Advantage: Very natural and encourage wildlife
          • Disadvantage: Houses on top of the cliff, may be destroyed.
      • Hard Engineering
        • Groynes
        • Breakwater
        • Sea Wall
        • Offshore Reef
        • Gabions
    • Prediction and prevention of the effects of coastal flooding
      • Forecasting
        • The met office forecasts the liklihood of a flood. The information gets to the householders though weather forecasts and news broadcasts on the tv and radio. It is also on their website.
      • Buiilding Design
        • In Bangladesh all one- storey and two storey buildings must have an external staircase to roof.
      • Education
        • The UK government gives advice to the public vis its website. There is general advice on how to protect their homes from flooding and what to do if it occurs.
    • Waves
      • Constructure Waves
        • They form in calm conditions
        • They add material to the beach.
        • They are wide and Low
      • Destructure Wave
        • The Backwash is greater than the swash
        • They are Narrow and Tall
        • They form in stormy Conditions
    • Effects on rate of Coastal Erosion
      • Fetch: The distance that a wave has to travel increase the power that it hold's. A large fetch equals high rates of erosion
      • Geology: Hard rocks erode at a slower rate than soft rocks therfore areas buildt upon soft rock have higher rate of erosion.
      • Wind Speed: Strong winds create destructive waves, therefore a strong prevailing wind willl increase rate of erosion
    • Walton-on-the Naze

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