GEOGRAPHY Coastal change and conflict

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  • Coastal change and conflict
    • Erosion
      • Abrasion
        • waves pick up small rocks and hurl them at the cliff face
      • Attrition
        • the current below waves grind rocks against the base of the cliff
      • Hydraulic action
        • air is forced into existing cracks and trapped, breaking the rock apart
    • Hard rock coastal landforms- headlands
      • crack, cave, arch, stack stump
      • Wave cut platforms- waves erode bottom of a cliff, unsupported rock above falls
    • longshore drift
      • waves aproach the coast in the direction of the wind
        • swash pushes sediment up at the angle of the wind
          • back wash drags sediment down at 90 degrees due to gravity
            • sediment moves in a zig zag fashion
      • sand spits- longshore drift travels across a river mouth, bay or bend in the coastline
    • soft rock coastline
      • easily  eroded (clay etc) not as tall or steeo as hard rock and no rocks at the bottom, piles of clay ect intead
      • Holderness-east yorkshire, fastest eroding coastline in Europe. costal management is in place in some places
    • hard rock coastline
      • high, steep, rugged, rocks at bottom of cliff
    • Concordant
      • same rock type along  coastline
    • discordant
      • rock type alternates along a coastline
    • speed of coastal retreat
      • rock type,, faults in the rock, storms how exposed the cliff is, coastal defences and fetch (how far the wave has travelled
    • consequences of erosion
      • house and land loss, infrastructure and income reduced
    • coastal management
      • soft engineering
        • beach replenishment- looks the same, but is costly and short term
        • managed retreat- effective, but short term and costly
        • cliff regrading- making the cliff less steep, reduces landslides but is short term and doesn't protect the cliff base
      • hard engineering
        • sea wall, long lasting but expensive and an eye sore
        • groynes-counteract longshore drift, is cheap and last long but restricts access and exposes other areas of the coast
        • rip rap- boulders on the shore to reduce the waves power, long term but expensive and ugly

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