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  • Created by: wardk
  • Created on: 08-07-16 10:37
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  • COAL
    • Formation
      • Formed as dead trees gradually become increasing pure carbon as other materials e.g.  Methane were squeezed out
    • Extraction
      • Deep or open  cast mining
        • Open cast is more mechanised, allows larger machinery and requires overburden to be removed, so only economic when reserves near surface
    • Availability
      • A lot is unavailable because it is too deep, found in small quantities or inaccessible places
    • Technology
      • Coal that is too deep can be burnt underground under controlled conditions to produce a mixture of fuel gases (hydrogen, carbon monoxide + methane)
      • Gasification allows exploitation of coal seams that are too deep, thin or fractured
      • Fuel/ flue-gas desulfurisa- tion have reduced the acid rain caused by burning coal
    • Transport & Storage
      • Via train, barge, truck or slurry pipeline
      • Stored by 'stacking' in open areas or closed coal silos
    • Uses
      • Allows the smelting of metal ores, generate electricity or in the iron/steel industry
    • Environment Impacts
      • Mining causes habitat loss, noise + dust pollution, subsidence
      • Open cast may be aesthetically displeasing, land slip risk and may produce turbid drainage water
      • Combustion releases large amounts of ash, CO2, CO, NOx, sulfur dioxide and smoke particulates.


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