Clement Attlee Overview (1945-51)

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  • Clement Attlee (1945-51)
    • Social
      • Housing
        • 157,000 prefabricated  houses as temporary accommodation
        • 1945- 700,000 lost houses from the war. 1948- 750,000 new houses
        • Minister of Housing = Bevan
          • didnt meet targets cause Bevan has high standards (fussy) and had no money to either
            • 1 million homes built between 1945-1951
        • 1 million homes built between 1945-1951
      • Education
        • Minister of Education = Ellen Wilkinson
          • Raised leaving age to 15 in 1947
          • introduced free school milk
            • Education
              • Minister of Education = Ellen Wilkinson
                • Raised leaving age to 15 in 1947
                • introduced free school milk
                • 928 new primary schools built by 1950
                • Butler Education Act 1994
                  • Tripartite system
                    • Secondary Modern
                    • Secondary Technicals
                    • Grammar Schools
          • 928 new primary schools built by 1950
          • Butler Education Act 1994
            • Tripartite system
              • Secondary Modern
              • Secondary Technicals
              • Grammar Schools
        • Welfare
          • National Assistance 1948
            • mainly for the unemployed
            • means tested (long questionnaire)
            • family allowances = 5 shillings per child per week
              • passed by the Tories before 1945 but Labour claimed their successs
          • National Health Service 1948
            • Opened 7th  July 1948
            • Stemmed from the National Health Service Act in  1946
            • Provide universal healthcare "free at the point of use"
              • free healthcare
              • free prescriptions
              • free dental care
            • British Medical Association severely against (40,000 against, 4000  for)
            • Minister of Health = Bevan
              • Minister of Housing = Bevan
                • didnt meet targets cause Bevan has high standards (fussy) and had no money to either
              • Funded by tax
            • National Insurance 1946
              • offered social security
              • people paid contributions which entitled  them to benefits
                • minimum needed to be paid in before they could give out
          • Town and Country Planning Act
            • Created Green Belt land
            • Created 14 new towns
              • e.g. Stevenage
        • Foreign
          • Korean War begins 1950
          • NATO 1949
            • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
            • "Keep Russians out,  Americans in and Germans down"
            • everyone defend an internal country if its attacked by an external one
          • Berlin Airlift 1948-49
            • Russians cut off land transport links so UK dropped in supplies by air
          • Cold War
            • Tension between USA and USSR
          • Marshall Aid 1948
            • Economic support from USA to Europe through AID to prevent Communism spreading
              • removed trade barriers
        • The Economy
          • Chancellor of the Exchequers
            • 1st Dalton
              • Resigns in 1947 (budget leak)
            • 2nd Cripps
              • Resigns in 1950 (due to ill health)
              • called Stafford Crapps by BBC radio presenter
            • 3rd Gaitskell
          • 4 month long negotiations in the USA in 1946
            • get a 50 year $3.75 billion loan
              • +2%  interest
            • have to devalue the £ from $4.30 to $2.80
              • get a 50 year $3.75 billion loan
                • +2%  interest
          • increase surtax
          • KEYNESIANISM beliefs that they should spend their way out and stimulate demand
        • The Atmosphere
          • Unemployment rose from 400,000 to 1.75million
          • 9 million strikes
          • Rationing
            • Bread started in 1946
            • Potatoes started in 1947
          • Winter of 1947
            • Bad weather
            • No food
              • Rationing
                • Bread started in 1946
                • Potatoes started in 1947
            • No power
              • Electricity  restricted
              • TV and Magazines suspended
              • Newspapers cut down
              • external lighting forbidden
              • No electricity for leisure activites e.g. Greyhound racing
        • Political stuff
          • General Elections
            • 1945
              • Tories lose
                • Churchill's Gestapo speech
                • Churchill bad leader during peacetime
                • Poor Tory campaigning due to Churchill's complacentcy
                • Insult the popular BR report calling it "dangerous optimism"
              • Labour win
                • Beveridge Report seen as popular and progressive
                  • 86% of the population were in favour of it
                  • Get rid of 5 evils: want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness
                • Attlee's good campaigning
                  • 10,000 socialist leaflets were distributed to troops
            • 1951
              • Tories win
                • Promise to immediately end rationing
                • Agreed to build 300,000 houses a year
                • Promise lower taxes
              • Labour  lose
                • Unpopular ministers e.g.    Cripps
                • Korean War divided party (angered lefty/communists)
                  • Causes cuts in NHS budget so Bevan and Wilson resign
                    • National Health Service 1948
                      • Opened 7th  July 1948
                      • Stemmed from the National Health Service Act in  1946
                      • Provide universal healthcare "free at the point of use"
                        • free healthcare
                        • free prescriptions
                        • free dental care
                      • British Medical Association severely against (40,000 against, 4000  for)
                      • Minister of Health = Bevan
                        • Funded by tax
                  • Economically split between Bevanites vs Gaitskellites
                  • 20% of public spending on defence
            • Resignings
              • Bevan 1951
                • Over cuts in the NHS budget due to the Korean War
                  • Wilson 1951
              • Cripps 1950
                • Bad health
              • Wilson 1951
              • Dalton 1947
                • Budget leak
            • Cabinet plot to remove Attlee in 1947

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