Classical liberalism

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  • Created by: Olivia 22
  • Created on: 25-05-14 09:36
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  • Classical Liberals
    • Human Nature
      • Rational
      • Optimistic (People are good)
      • Best judge of their own interests
      • Individuals are selfish and egotistical
      • Capable of living freely
    • Individualism,(supremacy of the individual over the collective.)
      • Methodological individualism,a way of understanding the world, all humans are separate/unique and aren't defined by the environment in which they live.
      • Ethical individualism,Gives moral priority to needs/rights of individuals. Only individuals can determine what is morally right.
      • Egotistical Individualism,Stresses self interestedness, pleasure seeking, Humans don't owe nothing to society nor does society owe anything to them.
    • Rationalism
      • Knowledge flows from reason not experience.
      • Helps bring progress and reform as humans are emancipated from the past.
      • Highlights importance of debates
      • Opposed to custom and tradition.
    • Toleration.
      • Forebarance
      • Political, religious, cultural, ethical and moral.
      • All views have some truth.
      • Accept ideas even if disapprove.
      • Only argument and debate can bring truth.
      • Two types of tolderation
        • Negative: Live and let live.
        • Positive toleration: Celebration of diversity.
    • Freedom: Ability to act as please.
      • Negative freedom: absence of restraints. Individuals act as they chose.
        • Freedom gives individuals opportunity to pursue own interests.
        • Laws/state/gov should be rolled back.
        • As individuals are a potential constraint in themselves, negative freedom justifies a minimal state to safeguard individuals from one another.
    • Rights
      • Human/natural rights
      • Expression of liberals individualism
      • Equal Rights e.g. Equal opportunities.
      • Linked liberal democracy.
      • Negative Rights: Impose restrictions on others; free to do what you want providing it doesn't harm others.
    • Equality
      • Foundational equality: humans are born equal with an equal capacity to reason. Everyone of equal moral worth. Everyone equally free. Equality of interests.
      • Formal equality: Equality before the law and equal civil and political rights.
      • freedom to be unequal, liberty before equality.
    • Justice
      • Free economy and limited state will guarantee social justice
      • Inequality acts as incentive to hard work
      • Social justice based on merit: those who deserve the most gain the most.
    • Economics
      • Laissez Fair Economics
      • Self regulating market
      • Free people able to satisfy their own desires
      • Market efficient and responsive
      • Avoids state intervention


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