Class Difference in Achievement (EX)

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  • Class Difference in Achievement (EX)
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Parents Level of Education
        • Middle class parents understand the school system better, fe exam boards, educational resources, future careers and such
        • Low class parents struggle with things like parents evening, subject concerns and option choices
      • Restricted Language Codes
        • Bernstein (1971) argued that there are two types of language codes; elaborated code and restricted code.
        • Middle class parents, teachers, text books and other educational resources use elaborated code
        • Low class families tend to have a restricted code due to being undereducated and illiterate
      • Subcultural Attitudes and Value
        • Sugarman (1970) and Hyman (1967) state that working class subcultures have four key features that act as a barrier to achievement
        • Fatalism: A belief in fate - what will be will be and there is nothing you can do to change your status
        • Collectivism: Valuing being part of a group rather than succeeding as an individual
        • Immediate Gratification: Seeing pleasure now rather than make sacrfices and waiting for it
        • Present Time Orientation: seeing the present as more important than the future and having long term goals
      • Cultural Capital
        • Cultural capital can be turned into educational capita, leading to economic capital
    • Material Deprivation
      • Poverty and Home Circumstance
        • Walfogel and Washrbrrok (2010) found that poorer children are more likely to limp in damp, crowded accommodation that is dark, unclean and unsafe making it hard to play and revise
        • Cooper and Stewart (2013) found that money makes a difference - poorer children have worse cognitive, social behavioral and health outcomes
      • Catchment Area
        • Schools in deprived areas are more likely to have discipline issues which prevent learning and result in higher teacher turnover
        • Schools in a more middle class areas have stronger, more conformist role models and a better learning environment
      • Diet and Health
        • Howard (2001) notes that young people in deprivation have poorer nutritional health, this weaken their immune systems and means that they have difficulty concentrating in lessons
        • Wilkinson (1996) recognized that in ten year olds the lower the social class the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders

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