Chinese Relations: USA & USSR

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  • Chinese Relations: 'Triangular Diplomacy'
    • Good relations with the USSR
      • Mao based his domestic policies on Stalin's
      • Both based on communist ideologies
        • The Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance of 1950
      • 1954: The Korean War cemented the friendship
    • Bad relations with the USSR
      • Sino-Soviet split: 1953
      • Ussuri River dispute: armed conflict - border disputes finally come to a climax and tensions along the border increase.
      • Mao offended by 'de-Stalinisation'
      • Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 changed Chinese perception of the Russians.
        • "active defence" strategy to deter the USSR doing the same thing to China
      • 1968: China encourages Albania and Romania to assert independence from Moscow
      • Mao critical of Khruschev
        • 1956; Khruschev's secret speech - critical of Stalin, who Mao admires greatly
      • 1966: Chinese Cultural Revolution - labelled the USSR as an 'ideological failure'
    • Good relations with the USA
      • 1969: Rapprochement
        • 1971: World Table Tennis Championships brought the nations together
          • 'Ping-Pong Diplomacy-
            • Trade and travel restrictions were relaxed
      • 1971: Kissenger's visit to China
        • 1972: Nixon's visit to China
          • 1975: Ford's visit to China
      • Links with the USA restored Mao's reputation after the Cultural Revolution.
      • Provided opportunities to undermine the Soviets
      • The good relationship between China and America put pressure on the USSR, which eventually led to Detente.
    • Bad relations with the USA
      • War in Vietnam threatened to increase US involvement in the region
      • Ideological differences; communism v capitalism
      • US support for Taiwan; China and Taiwan in conflict
      • October 1958: Taiwan left alone to be used as leverage on USA.
      • 1954: China cooperates and cements a friendship with the USSR in the Korean War


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