Child language acquisition - spoken

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  • Child language acquisition - spoken
    • Phonology
      • Theorists
        • The Fis phenomenen
          • Berko and Brown
          • Children fail to say certain sounds, can recognise when someone else gets them wrong
        • Intonation
          • Alan Cruttenden
          • Children don't understand intonation
      • Terminology
        • Phoneme - smallest unit of sound
        • Substitution - replacing consonants
        • Consonant cluster reduction - removing consonants
        • Assimilation - changes to a nearby sound
        • Deletion - deleting sounds
        • Reduplication - repeating sounds
        • Metathesis - swapping sounds
      • Phonemes
        • Nasals
          • m;n;ng
        • Plosives
          • t;k;p;d;g;b
        • Fricatives
          • f;th
        • Affricatives
          • ch;j
          • Combines plosive and following fricative
        • Final phonemes to develop
          • ð;?
      • Age of acquiring phonemes (months)
        • (24) p, b, m, d, n, w, t
        • (30) k, g, h, ?
        • (36) f, s, j, l
        • (42) t??,d??, v,z, ? , r
        • (48+) ð, ?
    • Lexis
      • Terminology
        • Hyponym - more specific word within a category eg. socks
        • Hypernym - more general word, can have more specific words under it eg. clothes
        • Holophrase - 1 word utterance that conveys meaning
        • S/V/O/C/A
          • Subject - responsible for carrying out verb process eg. I
          • Verb - verb phrase eg. ate
          • Object - affected by the action of the verb phrase eg. cake
          • Complement - provides more info about a subject or object eg. she is ill
          • Adverbial - circumstances of the action/event eg. I went to London
        • Overextenson- too many unrelated things in a category eg. calling father and postman 'Daddy'
        • Under extension - not enough in a category eg. only calling wall clock 'clock'
      • Theorists
        • Katherine Nelson
          • Naming (buggy, tummy)
          • Action (din-din, tinkle)
          • Social (uh-oh, night night)
          • Modifying - icky, yummy
        • Jean Aitchison
          • Packaging: Exploring labels + to what they apply - overextension occurs
          • Network building: making connections between words, understanding similarities + opposites in meaning
      • Stages
        • Stages of developing words (Age by months:Number of words
          • 24:200
          • 12:50
          • 36:2000
        • Stages of learning words
          • 1. Baby responds to words but is most dependent on context
          • 2. After a few months - knows what words are for, acquisition of new words speeds up, capable of fast mapping
          • 3. Age 3/4 - children re-organise ways they categorise words eg. can put things in more than 1 category at the same time
    • Grammar
      • Theorists
        • Micheal Halliday sentence functions
          • Instrumental - fullfils a purpose
          • Regulatory - influences behaviour of others
          • Interactional - develop and maintain social relationships
          • Personal - convey individual opinions, ideas and personal identity
          • Represent-tational - convey facts and information
          • Imaginative - create an imaginary world
          • Heuristic - learn about the environment
      • Terminology
        • Preffix - UNhappy
        • Suffix - creatED, creatING
        • Morpheme - 1 meaning = 1 morpheme eg. happy, 2 morphemes = 2 meanings eg. unhappy
        • Free morpheme - makes sense on its own eg. happy
        • Bound morpheme - doesn't make sense on its own, pre/suffixes eg. un/est
    • Other theorists
      • Chomsky - nativist
        • Innate language
        • Critical period
        • Universal grammar
        • LAD (language acquisition device) - all children have this that encodes major principles of language
        • Virtuous errors
      • Skinner
        • Children develop language through interaction
        • Imitating adults language/ dialect
      • Vygotsky
        • Language is a social construct + is learned socially
        • Imaginative play - exploring adult themes
      • Piaget
        • Children explore world around them
        • Childhood is important for shaping someone's future

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