Spoken Child Acquisition

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  • Spoken Child Acquisition
    • Phonology
      • The Pre-Verbal Stage
        • Vegetative
        • Cooing
        • Babbling
        • Proto-words
      • Katherine Nelson 1973
        • Nelson found that first objects named  by children are small, easily handled and part of an everyday environment. Also, they may change, move or make a noise.
      • Early phonological errors
        • Deletion
        • Substitution
        • Addition
        • Assimilation
        • Reduplication
        • Consonant cluster reduction
        • Deletion of unstressed syllables
      • Developing phonology
        • Phonemic expansion: increasing the variety of sounds produced
        • Phonemic contraction: reducing sounds for own language.
      • How are sounds produced?
        • The manner of articulation: how?
        • The place of articulation: where?
        • If sounds are voiced or unvoiced?
      • Types of sound
        • Fricatives
        • Plosive
        • Affricatives
        • Approximates
        • Nasals
        • Laterals
      • Roger Brown 1974
        • Brown theorised that babies don't hear themselves in the same way they hear others and no correction will change this.
        • Fis/Fish
    • Lexis
      • Steven Pinker 1994
        • He concluded that a baby has to select the correct referent for the word from an enormous range of possibilities. The amount of attachments the word has makes it vital to choose the right one.
      • Aitchinson 1987
        • He identified 3 stages that occur during acquisition of vocabulary.
        • Labelling is the 1st stage and involves making links between the sounds of the particular words and objects they refer
        • Packing entails understanding the words range of meaning.
        • Network building involves grasping the connection between words and understanding that some words are opposite in meaning.
      • Under extension
        • This is when a child learns a word but doesn't apply that word to the same object.
          • A baby restricts the number of referents of a word, usually to the original context the word was learnt.
        • A second kind of under extension occurs when the meaning of a word is narrower than usual; referring to a wall clock and no other.
      • Over extension
        • This is when a child over applies a word. Its the most common.
        • Rescorla 1980
          • The semantic feature hypothesis
          • The functional similarities hypothesis
          • Categorical
          • Analogical
          • Statements
      • Child directed speech
        • Aims to: attract and hold the baby's attention and help the process of breaking down language into understandable chunks
        • The term given to the special way most adults instinctively talk to babies.
      • Roger Brown's meaning relations
        • Agent+affected
        • Agent+action
        • Entity+attribute
        • Action+affected
        • Action+location
        • Entity+location
        • Possesser+possession
          • Nomination
        • Recurrence
        • Negation
      • Holophrase
        • This is one word that has a fuller meaning than its label and is used as babies have no other way of making their message more explicit.
    • Morphological
      • This involves understanding that word order and words themselves can change
      • Morphemes
        • Bound
        • Free
      • Roger Brown
        • Found that morphemes are acquired in a particular order. Present tense>contractible auxiliary
    • Grammatical
      • David Crystal
        • Categorised two word utterances
        • A person performs an action
        • A person/object is described
        • An action affects an object
        • An object is located
        • An object is given a possessor.
      • Three word/telegraphic stage
      • Mean length of utterance
        • Calculated by dividing the total number of words spoken, by the number of utterances.
      • Pronouns
      • Wugs- Jean Gleason
        • 75% formed the regular plural.
      • Making words: overgeneralisation
        • Virtuous error
      • Utterance functions
        • Halliday's functions of speech
        • Dore's language functions
      • Bellugi: forming negatives and asking question stages.
    • Theorists
      • Chomsky: Innateness
      • Skinner: Behaviourism
      • Vygotsky
      • Piaget: Cognitive

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