Chemistry-atoms,compounds, mixtures and elements.

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  • Chemistry
    • Elements
      • A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction.
      • Only contain one type of atom.
    • The atom
      • An atom is a very small particle.
      • The nucleus contains protons and neutrons.
        • Positive charge.
      • The shells contain electrons.
        • Negative charge.
      • Atomic number- number of protons and electrons.
      • Mass number- the sum of protons and neutrons nucleus.
      • Shell arangements- 2,8,8,2. are filled with electrons.
    • Compounds.
      • Compound is formed when two or more elements are joined by a chemical reaction.
      • Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
      • Chemical formula examples of compounds- NaNO3
      • Iconic compounds- non metal atom joins to a metal atom.
      • Ions- electrons move from the metal to non metal.
      • Metal atoms loose electrons forming positive ions.
      • Non-metal atoms gain electrons forming negative ions.
    • Mixtures
      • Mixtures are made from different substances that are not chemically joined.
      • Can be separated without a chemical reaction.
      • Can be separated by- Filtration, Evaporation, Chromatography, Distillation.
      • Filtration- Insoluble solid from liquid. (a solid that does not dissolve.
      • Evaporation- Soluble solid from liquid. (a solid that does dissolve).
      • Distillation- Seperating liquids due to boiling points. Pure liquids have specific boiling points One liquid evaporates before the other.
    • Chromatography
      • Can be used to separate mixtures of coloured compounds.
      • Rf value = distance moved by compound divided by distance moved by solvent.


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