Charles and his Parliaments

Complete notes of Charles and his Parliaments before Personal Rule 1625-1629. AQA 

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  • Created on: 09-05-13 18:28
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  • Charles and his Parliaments
    • First Parliament 1625
      • Tonnage and Poundage
        • Suspicions of "soft" Catholic policy
        • Sir Robert Phelips and Edward Coke attacked Buckingham politically concerning tonnage and poundage
        • Money raised from this should go to protection of seas, this was failing
        • Coke and Phelips got the Commons to vote Tonnage and Poundage for 1 year only, their way of protesting against Buckingham
        • Charles saw this as a challenge and ignored the Commons, collecting the duties anyway.
      • Discontent with Parliament
        • Commons not convinced land war was necessary so voted for two subsidies for sea war
        • It was said that if Parliament didn't support war, they were disloyal, another way must be found
        • Buckingham was under attack and speeches were made discussing toleration to Catholics without financial support
        • Charles dismisses Parliament as he feels nothing in accomplished
      • Met in bad times. The plague broke out killing 20% of London's population. Session moved to Oxford to avoid it
    • Second Parliament 1626
      • Tension between King and Commons
        • Situation of country was bad, Charles needed money
        • Charles appointed those who opposed Buckingham as sheriffs so they could not oppose
        • Laud preached sermon supporting divine right, Parliament became frustrated
      • Attack on Buckingham
        • Sir John Elliot stated "Our honor is ruined not by enemies, but by those we trust"
        • Commons and Lords opposed Villiars. Bristol was ambassador to Spain during Spanish Match. He knew of Charles negotiations for toleration to Catholics in England and threatened to make it all public
        • Charles charged Bristol with Treason to silence him but the Lords retaliate with a charge against Buckingham with several pieces of evidence
      • Charles dismisses Parliament
        • Threatened Parliament with "Remember Parliaments are in my power for calling, sitting and dissolution"
          • Despite this, Parliament voted to impeach Buckingham
      • Finance after dismissing Parliament
        • Sold Crown Lands
          • Little rent left due to selling land
        • Courtiers warned that Charles would be forced to find new ways of income if subsidies weren't granted
        • Charles tried benevolence (asking tax payers)
          • Failed
        • Forced Loan 1627
          • All who paid parliamentary subsidies pressured by commissioners to lend
          • Few refused
          • Legally opposed by Lord Chief Justice Crew
            • Refused to make it legal
        • Five Knight's Case
          • Refused to pay forced loan and imprisoned
          • Tried for habeas corpus
            • If legally tried, forced loans were called into question
          • Knights released 1628
        • Billeting and Marital law caused grievance
    • Third Parliament 1628
      • Petition of Right 1628
        • Made by Coke
        • Defined rights of subjects
        • Listed illegal royal acts
          • Forced loans
          • Arresting with no "just cause"
          • Billeting and Martial Law illegal
        • Charles reluctant to sign but did eventually
          • Became part of constitution
      • Met in distrust
      • Charles needed £1/2 million
        • Parliament needed Charles to see the limits of his power
      • Parliament voted 5 subsidies
        • Discovered Charles attempted to raise German cavalry 1628
          • Believed Buckingham intended military coup to continue absolutist state
            • Resulted in 2 remonstrances
            • Demand for recrusancy laws for Catholics and complained of Armenians and Buckingham
            • Complained about Tonnage and Poundage
      • Death of Buckingham (Assasinated)
        • French relation with Henrietta improved
        • MP's thought Villiars has led Crown astray, now they could support the King
    • Fourth Parliament 1629
      • Tonnage and Poundage
        • Merchants refused to pay
        • Goods were taken from people who refused
        • John Rolle MP had goods taken
          • Commons took on his case
            • They issued an attacked on customs farmers
            • Avoided challenging the King
        • Charles though war gave him right to collect it
      • Three Resolutions 1629
        • A step too far
        • Eliot convinced Charles wanted to rule alone, passed 3 resolutions
        • Advising T+P "a capital offense"
        • Paying T+P "a capital offense"
        • Popery and Armenianism "accounted capital enemy of the King"
        • Eliot imprisoned
      • Armenian Montague promoted to Bishop of Chichester
        • Arminians were seen as a threat to the Church
        • He wouldn't accept puritan views of MP's
      • Dismisses Parliament with conclusion that Commons could not co-operate

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