Russia under Nicholas II

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  • Character of Russia Nicholas II inherited
    • 8 million sq/m
    • Romanov Dynasty since 1613
      • Imperial Council
      • Cabinetof Ministers
      • The Senate
    • Okhrana repressive group
    • Politically backwards
      • Denial of free speech, worship led to political activists
      • Slow economic development
      • 80% of the population were illiterate/uneducatedpeasants
      • Peasants called the 'dark masses'
    • Cost of maintaining army was 45% of govt expenditure
    • The bureaucracy was corrupt
    • Russia under Nicholas II new policies
      • Russification
        • Restricted influence on non-russians; fierce persecution of pogroms
      • Reactionary tsar
      • Fundamental Laws
        • Tsar holds absolute autocratic power
      • Sergei Wittes Economic reforms
        • 1890's industry grew called 'the great spurt'
          • Increase in the output of coal + oil +the private enterprise
        • Economic Expansion
        • State Capitalism
        • Railway expansion (trans-siberain)

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