Changes in Characteristics and Functions

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  • Changes in Characteristics and Functions
    • Functional Change
      • Key functions are administrative, commercial, retail and industrial
      • Specialist functions are banks, department stores, council offices and doctors surgeries
      • Retail landscape has transformed due to online shopping, click-and-collect and banking
    • Demographic Changes
      • Age Structure
      • Ethnic Composition
        • 86% of people are white
      • Gentrification
        • Change in the social structure of a place when affluent people move into a location
        • Planners allow developers to upgrade a place's characteristics, residential and retail to attract higher status residents
    • Factors Affecting the Changing Characteristics of Places
      • Physical
        • Proximity to large cities and economic zones
        • Attractiveness
      • Accessibility
        • Road, rail and air
        • Investment and visitors
      • Historical Development
        • Primary production and manufacturing has ended
        • Historic buildings
      • Role of Planning by Governments and Other Stakeholders
        • National government
        • A "plan led" system
        • Conservation area
          • Policies limit new developments
        • Central government intervention
        • Local planning
          • Centres on elected parish and city councils
        • Image
    • Measuring Changes
      • Land-use changes
      • Employment trends
      • Demographic changes
      • Levels of deprivation
      • Index of Multiple Deprivation
        • Used to target regeneration aid
        • There are pockets of deprivation
        • Deprivation is concentrated in large urban areas

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