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  • Challenges of rapid urbanisation
    • Growth of the informal economy
      • Unskilled labourers struggle to survive in the city
        • Lack of social security /pensions
        • Employment is difficult to find for people with only farming skills
    • Growth of shanty housing
      • Estimated that between 70-95% of all new housing in developing nations consists of shanty settlements
        • These people don't own the land = no security
        • 60% of the urban pop of Africa live in shanty housing
          • West Africa is experiencing some of the most rapid urbanisation in the world
            • Untitled
      • Undesirable?
        • Many governments are embarrassed of them = demolishment
          • Replacement of shanty housing is a big issue for LEDC's
            • Governments cant afford to build public housing or provide grants to improve the shanty towns
            • People are reluctant to move away from locations near the city
            • Moving can destroy the spirit of the community
        • Some governments see them as a self help way of addressing the housing shortage
          • If the areas are improved more people may come to settle
            • = overcrowding and congestion
      • Lagos, Nigeria
    • Population structures
      • Rural urban migration distorts the population structure
        • Skewed population pyramid of young males
          • Cities = excess of males age 20-45
        • Majority of the women remain in rural settlements
          • Excess of non productive people (children and elderly) can cause problems
    • Primate cities
      • they completely dominate the urban networks = political, economic, social and cultural focus
        • Rapid growth in population due to rural urban migration and migration from neighbouring countries = looking for work and opportunities


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