CGP GCSE Chemstry for AQA (Grade 9-1)---Topic 1-Atomic Structure and the Perodic Table

This is a mind map on the first topic in the CGP GCSE Chemstry Revision Guide, excluding the required praticles (sorry)

It follows the AQA spec and is for the new 9-1 grade system.

Hope you enjoy and learn something!!

NOTE: Most definitions are in the Bottom Right Corner, along with the Equations.

Sorry if the equations are hard to understand, i did the best I could.

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  • Atomic Structure and the Perodic Table
    • Atoms
      • They contain Protons,Neutrons and Electrons
        • The atom is made up of the Nucleus and Shells
          • The nucleus contains Protons and Neutrons, because of this it has a positive charge.
            • The number of Protons are the same as the number of Electrons (except for ions)
              • Its atomic number tells you how many Protons it has, the mass number tells you the total number of Protons and Electrons
          • Shells are where electrons are
    • Elements
      • Elements consist of atoms containing the same atomic number
        • Atoms can be represented by symbols
          • C=carbon,O=Oxygen,Na=Sodium
          • Isotopes are the same element but have a different number of Neutrons
    • Compounds
      • Atoms chemically join together to create compounds
        • When compounds are formed Ions usually form (Ions will be in the Topic 2 mind map)
          • Formulas show what atoms are in a compound
    • Chemical Equations
      • Chemical changes are shown using chemical equations
        • Symbol equations show atoms on both sides
          • Symbol equations need to be balanced
            • The main reason is because there must be the same number of atoms on both sides- Conservation of Mass
    • Mixtures and Chromatography
      • Mixtures are easily seperated, unlike compounds
        • The reason being that mixtures are not chemically bonded
        • Paper Chromatography is a way of seperating inks from a single dot to see what colours are in certain inks
    • History of the atom
      • In 1897 J J Thomson created the plum pudding model
        • In 1909 Rutherford fired alpha particles at a sheet of gold and proved the plum pudding model to be wrong
          • Bohr created the Nuclear Model, which shows the nucleus and electrons in shells.
            • About 20 years later James Chadwick found the Protons
    • Untitled
    • Electronic Structure
      • Electrons always occupy shells, the lowest shell is always filled first
        • Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell
          • Atoms are happier when they have full electron shells
            • In most atoms the outer shell is not full which makes the atom want to react
          • 1st: 2, 2nd: 8 3rd: 8 4th: 2


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