Cars and Car safety P2

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  • Cars and Car safety
    • Momentum
      • Momentum is a property of moving objects. The greater the mass of an object, the greater the velocity and therefore momentum.
      • When a force acts on an object, it causes a change in momentum. A larger force means a faster change of momentum.
      • In a closed system, the total momentum before an event is the same as the momentum after - The conservation of momentum.
    • Car design
      • Cars are designed with safety features so it takes more time for a change in momentum, thus reducing the force.
      • When you apply brakes to slow down a car, work is done. The brakes reduce the kinetic energy by transferring it into heat,
      • Crumple zones are at the front and back of the car and crumple upon impact. The cars kinetic energy is converted into other energy forms by the car as it changes shape. They increase impact time, decreasing force.
      • Side impact bars are strong metal tubes fitted into car door panels to direct kinetic energy away from the passengers.
      • Seat belts stretch and increase time taken for reader to stop reduce forces on passenger.
  • Braking distance
    • The braking distance is the distance the car travels under the braking force.
      • Braking distance is affected by speed, brake quality, tyre quality and grip.
    • The faster you're going, the further it takes to stop.
    • All brakes must be checked and maintained regularly to prevent accidents.
    • Tyres should have a minimum tread depth of 1.6mm in order to be able to get ride of water in wet conditions. Spills on the road can also increase braking distance too.
    • The quality of the grip depends on the road surface, weather conditions and tryes.
  • Regenerative brake systems, put the motor into reverse, slowing the wheels. The motor converts kinetic energy into electrical energy that is stored as chemical energy in the vehicle's battery.
  • Cars are designed to convert kinetic energy in a safe way by increasing time over which momentum occurs and lessening the force.
  • Thinking distance
    • Bad visibility and distractions can be a major factor in accidents as they distract you from the road and are more likely to cause accidents.
    • Thinking distance is the distance the vehicle travels during the driver's reaction time.
    • This is affected by how fast you're going and distractions. The faster you're going, the further you'll go.
  • The size and design of engine determine power. Cars are also designed to be aero-dynamic.


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