CARDIOVASULAR SYSTEM

  • Created by: Elle99
  • Created on: 09-10-17 09:29
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  • cardiovascular and respiratory systems
    • cardiovascular system
      • cardiac system
        • Rest- heart beats 72 times a minute
          • cardiac cycle lasts 0.8 seconds
            • two phases
              • systolic
                • contract
                  • 0.3 secs
                  • empty
              • diastolic
                • relaxed
                  • 0.5 secs
                  • fill
            • cardiac output
              • volume of blood ejected from the heart ventricles in 1 min
              • rest-5l/min
              • sub max up to 10L/min
              • 20-40L/min
                • Q=SV X HR
      • conduction system
        • Diastole
          • both atria fill with blood
            • atrial blood pressure rises above ventricular pressure
              • force AV valves open, semilunar valves close
                • systole
                  • SAN generate electrical impulse, fires through atria walls= contraction
                    • AVN collects impulse and delays for 0.1 second, to allow atria to finish contracting
                      • bundle of his(septum) splits impulse into two
                        • bundle branches carry impulse to bach of each ventricle
                          • purkyne fibres distribute impulse through vernacular walls
                            • contract
                              • semilunar valves remain closed
                                • aortic and pulmonary valves forced open
                                  • blood forced
                                    • aorta- blood tissue/muslces
                                    • pulmonary-lungs
      • heart rate
        • no. of ventricular contractions in 1 min
        • At rest, untrained 70-72bpm
        • at rest- trained 50bpm
        • sub max UT- 100-130bpm
          • T- 92-120bpm
            • heart more effiecent= stronger muscle= more blood around body
          • maximal
            • 220-age
            • regulation
              • ANS  involuntarily regulates HR and determines firing rate of SA node
      • stroke volume
        • volume of blood ejected from the heart
        • rest UT- 70ml T-100ml
          • larger heart muscle= stronger=larger filling capacity= stronger contraction=more emptied
        • sub max UT-100/200ml T-160-200ml
          • Trained =same!
    • respiratory systems
      • breathing rate
        • No. inspirations or expirations per min
        • rest UT- 12-15B/MIN T-11-12B/MIN
          • MAX- UT:40-50 b/min T:50-60 B/MIN
        • changes during exercise
          • increases in proportion to intensity
          • plateau when o2 reach demand
      • tidal volume
        • volume of air inspired or expired per breath
        • REST UT & T 500ml
          • MAX: UT- 2.5-3L T- 2.5-3L
        • initially in proportion at sub max until 3 litres
          • reaches plateau as increased BR towards maximal intensity doesn't allow enough time and requires too much muslcar effort for maximal inspiration/expiration
      • 2 main functions
        • pulmonary ventilation
          • inspiration/expiration
        • gaseous exchnage
          • external - alveoli
          • internal-  muscles

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