Further organic chemistry: Carboxylic acid derivatives -4

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 07-04-15 10:54
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  • Carboxylic acid derivatives
    • Acyl chlorides
      • Functional group -COCl
      • Reactions
        • With water
          • Produces a carboxylic acid
          • Vigorous reaction with cold water
        • With alcohols
          • Produces an ester
          • Vigorous reaction at room temperature
        • With concentrated ammonia
          • Produces an amide -CONH2
          • Violent reaction at room temperature
        • With amines
          • Violent reaction at room temperature
          • Produces a N-substituted amide
    • Esters
      • Functional group -COO-
      • Reactions
        • Hydrolysis with an acid
          • Heated under reflux with a an acid, e.g HCl or H2SO4
          • Alcohol and Carboxylic acid produced
          • Reversible reaction
        • Hydrolysis with a base
          • Heated under reflux with with an alkali, e.g NaOH
          • Production of an alcohol and the salt of the carboxylic acid
        • Transesterification
          • Ester reacted with an alcohol, acid catalyst
          • Used in the manufacture of biodiesel
          • Used to make low fat spreads - hardening of vegetable fats
          • Swaps the alcohol part of the ester with a different alcohol
        • Polyesters
          • Carboxyl groups react with hydroxyl groups to form ester linkages
          • Condensation reaction
          • Dicarboxylic acids & Diols
          • Characteristics of polyestsers: strong, flexible & abrasion-resistant
            • PET(Terylene) used in clothes to keep them crease free

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