Carbon Cycling

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  • Carbon cycling
    • autotrophs convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and other carbon compounds
    • in acquatic habitats, carbon dioxide is present as a dissolved gas and hydrogen carbonate ions
    • carbon dioxide diffuses from the atmosphere or water into autotrophs
    • carbon dioxide is produced by respiration and diffuses out of organisms into water or the atmosphere
    • methane is produced from organic matter in anaerobic conditions by methanogenic archaeans and some diffuses into the atmosphere
      • bacteria that convert organic matter into a mixture of organic acids
      • bacteria that use the organic acids and alcohol to produce acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen
      • Archaeans that produce methane from carbon dioxide, hydrogen and acetate
        • mud
        • waterlogged environments
        • guts of termites and ruminant mammals
        • landfill sites
    • methane is oxidised to carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere
    • peat forms when organic matter is not fully decomposed because of anaerobic conditions in waterlogged soils
    • partially decomposed organic matter from past geological eras was converted into oil and gas in porous rocks or coal
    • carbon dioxide is produced by the combustion of biomass and fossilised organic matter
    • Animals such as reef-building corals and molluscs have hard parts that are composed of calcium carbonate and can become fossilised in limestone


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