C6.

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  • C6- Chemical synthesis
    • Industrial chemical synthesis
      • Makes useful products
      • Scale- chemicals can be produced on a large or small scale
        • small scale- pharmaceuticals
        • Large scale- sulfuric acid
      • Sectors eg. pharmaceuticals, toiletries and cleaning products
    • Acids and alkalis
      • Indicators and pH meters can be used to determine pH
      • Neutralization reactions between acids and alkalis make salts
      • Acid+ alkali--> salt+ water
      • H+ +OH- --> H20
    • Acids reacting with metals
      • Acid + metal --> Salt + Hydrogen
      • The more reactive the metal, the faster the reaction
      • hydrochloric acid- chloride
      • Sulfuric acid- sulfate
    • Oxides, hydroxides and carbonates
      • Metal oxides and metal hydroxides reacts with acids
      • Acid + Metal oxide--> Salt + water
      • Acid+ Metal hydroxide --> Salt+ water
    • Synthesising compounds
      • 1- choosing the reaction
      • 2- risk assessment
      • 3- calculating the quantities of reactants
      • 4- choosing the apparatus and conditions
      • 5- isolating the product
      • 6- Purification
      • 7- measuring yield and purity
    • Calculating masses in reactions
      • 1- write out the balanced equation
      • 2- work out FM, and multiply by the number in front of the formula ( just the two bits you want)
      • 3- apply the rule: divide to get one, the multiply to get all (but you have to apply this first to the substance they give information about, and then the other one)
    • Purification and measuring yield
      • Isolating the product and purification use similar techniques
      • use filtration, evaporation and crystallization, and drying
      • Percentage yield= actual yield(g)/ theoretical yield (g) x100
      • Actual yield-  mass of pure, dry product
      • Theoretical yield- maximum possible mass of pure product
      • Percentage yield- the actual yield of the product as a percentage
    • Titrations
      • Using a burette
      • neutralization reaction
      • Solids can't be used to carry out titrations so must be a solution
    • Purity
      • Some products need to be very pure
      • Titrations can be used to measure the purity of a substance
      • % purity = calculated mass of substance/ mass of impure substance at start x100
    • Energy transfer in reactions
      • exothermic  and endothermic
        • endothermic takes in energy
        • exothermic gives out energy
      • energy level diagrams show exo or endothermic
      • Energy management is important to control reactions
    • Rates of reaction
      • Rate of reaction must be controlled for:
        • Saftey
        • Economicreasons
      • Increased rate caused by :
        • Temperature
        • concentration
        • Catalysts
        • More surface area
    • Collision theory
      • more collisions increases the rate ofreaction
      • temp, conc, surface area and catalys increase collisions
    • Measuring rates of reaction
      • Rate of reaction = amount of reactant used or amount of product formed/ time
      • 3 ways to measure-
        • precipitate and colour change
        • Change in mass (gas given off)
        • The volume of gas

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