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  • C3b
    • universal  indicator changes colour gradually, methyl orange or phenolphthalein have a definite  colour change
    • titration
      • put known concentration in conical flask with indicator, add unknown a bit at a time with burette, especially  slowly when colour change is near, regular swirls, record amount required and repeat to calculate mean
    • energy and fuels
      • copper used for calorimetry cans as it is such a good conductor of heat
      • experimental energy content < actual energy content as heat is always lost to can or surrounding air
      • Q=mcT
        • Q= energy, m= mass, c=specific heat capacity,      T=temperature change
    • getting energy from hydrogen
      • unlikely to end our dependence on fossil fuels
        • hydrogen is a gas so takes up much more space than liquid, very explosive, hydrogen is either from hydrocarbons (fossil fuels) or electrolysis of water (electricity       --> fossil fuels)
    • tests for negative ions
      • carbonates = react with dilute acid and see if CO2 is formed
      • sulphate ions - dilute HCl, barium chloride, white precipitate
      • chloride/bromide/iodide - add dilute HNO3, then silver nitrate = white/cream/yellow


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