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  • C3a
    • periodic table
      • newlands and mendeleev both arranged by atomic mass
      • called the periodic table as when the elements are arranged a periodic pattern in their properties can be seen
    • hardness of water
      • build up of scale makes equipment less efficient
      • benefits of hard water = nutritious (calcium) and reduced risk of heart disease
      • ion exchange column: lots of Na or H ions which are exchanged for Ca or Mg ions, removing them from the water
    • water quality
      • water passes through   mesh, chemicals added to make solids and microbes stick together and fall to bottom, water  filtered, chlorine added
      • fluoride added as it prevents  tooth decay, chlorine added as it prevents disease
        • chlorine taste can be removed using a water filterer containing carbon
      • lots of fluoride = cancer risk and  bone probs
      • chlorine can react with  natural   substances in water to form toxic by-products
    • haber process
      • nitrogen sourced from air and hydrogen sourced from natural gas
    • alcohols - OH
      • ethanol can be combined with petrol and used as a fuel, more ethanol = less pollution, fermentation  of plants, renewable
      • dyes can be added to stop people drinking alcohols
        • meths = fuels and cleaning brushes
    • carboxylic acids
      • ethanoic acid made by oxidising ethanol using microbes or oxidising agents
        • acids form a weak acidic solution in water as they dont ionise completely so not many H+ ions are released
    • esters
      • ethanol + carboxylic acid = ethyl ethanoate, catalyst = concetrated sulfuric acid


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