C3

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  • C3- Chemicals in our lives
    • Minerals
      • Can learn the history of sedimentary rock by looking at shape and size of sand grains
      • Fossils are used to age rocks too
        • Can learn the history of sedimentary rock by looking at shape and size of sand grains
    • Salt: sources and uses
      • Uses
        • Preservation of food
        • Flavour
        • Treat icy roads
        • Source of chemicals such as chlorine
      • Sea salt
        • Fuel needed to evaporate and separate the salt
      • Rock salt
        • Rock salt is impure
          • Used on icy roads
        • Extracted from mines
      • Solution mining
        • Pumping water down into rock
        • Salt dissolves and is carried to the surface in solution
          • The solution is evaporated
        • The solution is called brine
        • Cause sibsidence
          • Rock salt
            • Rock salt is impure
              • Used on icy roads
            • Extracted from mines
    • Salt in food
      • Sodium chloride
      • 75% of the salt is in everyday food
      • Raise blood pressure- too much
      • Increase cholesterol
    • Alkalis
      • Neutralise acid soils
      • Converts fats and oils into soap
      • Make glass
      • Make chemicals that bind natural dyes to cloth
      • Sodium hydroxide neutralizes hydrochloric acid to make salt
      • Alkaline hydroxide+ acid-> Salt+ Acid
      • Alkaline carbonate+ acid-> salt + CO2 + water
    • Making alkali on a large scale
      • Leblanc process- highly poluting
      • Released hydrogen sulfide gas (smelt of rotten eggs)
      • Parliament passed Alkali acts
      • Released hydrogen chloride
      • Found a way to oxidise and turn it to chlorine
        • Released hydrogen chloride
      • New methods of manufacturing alkali was developed
    • Water treatment
      • Before water treatment
        • diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery and gastrienteritis
        • Caused by sewage contamination
      • Chlorination of drinking water reduced illnesses
      • May be side effects of chlorination
        • Might cause the formation of trihalomethanes
          • Form when chlorine reacts with organic matter in water
          • Could lead to cancer
      • Water companies use ozone to break down organic material
    • Making chemicals from salt
      • Electrolysis
      • The chemical changes take place at the surface of the metals
      • Needs a lot of energy
      • Some of toxic mercury escapes into the environment
    • Protecting health and environment
      • Chemicals must be tested- tiny traces are not unsafe
      • Strict EU laws about chemicals
      • REACH collects information about the hazards of chemicals and to assess risks
      • POPs- persistent organic pollutants
        • Usually contain chlorine
        • Tend to accumulate in fatty tissue of animals
      • Dirty dozen- 8 pesticides, 2 used in industry, 2 by- products of industry
        • all pesticides and industrial chemicals are banned in britain
    • PVC
      • Synthetic polymer
        • Produced, used and disposed
      • Methene and chlorine form to make vinyl chloride
        • vinyl chloride monomer molecules join together to make long chains of poly(vinyl chloride)
      • Made of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine
      • Most polymer waste ends up in landfill
    • Plasticisers
      • Toymakers use PVC because it is versatile
      • Plasticisers make PVC soft and flexible
      • Most common plasticisers are phthalates
      • Can escape from PVC
      • Can lead to health problems such as cancer, liver problems and infertility
      • Used in toys, blood bags or bags for intravenous drips

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