C2 - Material Choices

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  • C2 - Material Choices
    • Natural & Synthetic Materials
      • Natural
        • Plants
          • eg. wood, paper, cotton
        • Animals
          • eg. wool, silk, leather
      • Synthetic
        • Raw materials come from Earth's crust
          • eg. aluminium, chromium - used in metal alloys
        • Human (man-made)
          • eg. rubber (in factories), nylon, polyester,
    • Properties
      • Melting Point
        • Temperature it turns to liquid
      • Strength
        • How good a material is at resisting force
          • Compressive Strength
            • Resistance of pushing force
              • eg. brick
              • eg. cross beams
          • Tensile Strenth
            • Resistance of pulling force
              • eg. rope
              • eg. cross beams
      • Stiffness
        • How much it bends when force is applied
      • Hardness
        • How difficult it is to cut
      • Density
        • Mass per unit volume     (eg. g/cm3)
          • Less dense than water = float
          • More dense than water = sink
    • Polymerisation
      • Polymer
        • Made of chains of monomers
          • Synthetic  Polymers use hydrocarbons as the monomer
          • Contain a  carbon to carbon double bond
        • Many small chains are joined by breaking double bonds
        • Chains packed close together = high density
          • Plasticisers reduce forces between chins = weaker forces
            • Cross links bond chains together = stronger forces
              • More energy needed to break bonds = high melting point
            • Less energy needed to break bonds = low melting point
        • Chains spread out = low density
          • Cross links bond chains together = stronger forces
            • More energy needed to break bonds = high melting point
        • Crystalline
          • Chains in straight lines; fit together easier = higher density, stronger, higher melting point
      • Linking lots of small molecules together
      • Polyester is often used to replace natural materials such as cotton, silk, wool
    • Crude Oil
      • Mixture of hydrocarbons
        • Chains of hydrogen & carbon atoms
          • Short chains = low boiling point
          • Long chains = high boiling point
          • Strong covalent bonds
            • Between hydrogen & carbon atoms
              • Strong enough to hold molecules in place even when intermolecular forces are overcome
        • Intermolecular forces
          • Between hydrocarbonmolecules
            • When heated, molecules have more energy so might be able to overcome intermolecular forces
              • Turning into a gas
              • Strong enough to hold molecules in place even when intermolecular forces are overcome
      • Refining (separating)
        • Fraction distilation
          • Hydrocarbons separated into groups "fractions" - with similar boiling points
      • Uses:
        • Fuel
        • New compounds
          • eg. plastics, fertilisers
          • Chemical synthesis
    • Nanotechnology
      • 1nm = 0.000000001 m
      • Nanoparticles
        • Natural
          • Seaspray
            • Sea produces nanoscale salt particles
              • React with water molecules in air - clouds & rain
          • Combustion
            • Fuels brunt
              • Produces  nanoscale soot particles
        • Synthetic
          • Added to plastic sports equipment
            • More durable & stronger
          • Surgical masks & wound dressings
            • Antibacterial
        • Large  surface area to volume ratio
          • Light weight

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