C2 Material Choices

material choices

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  • C2 Material Choices
    • Natural and Synthetic materials
      • metals
      • Ceramics
      • Polymers
      • All made up of chemicals
        • atoms or groups of atoms bonded together
        • Or a mixture of chemicals
      • NATURAL
        • wood
        • cotton
        • leather
        • silk
        • wool
      • SYNTHETIC
        • nylon
        • polyester
        • paints
    • Materials, Properties and Uses
      • uses depend on properties
        • plastics are hard, stiff, strong, fairly low density and can be mouldable
        • Rubber is strong but soft, flexible and mouldable
        • Nylon fibres can be soft, flexible and strong
      • PROPERTY
        • melting point
        • strength
        • stiffness
        • hardness
        • density
    • Crude Oil
      • Fossil Fuel
        • a mixture of hydrocarbons
          • hydrocarbon properties depend on chain length
            • short chain
              • gaseous - low boiling points
            • long chain
              • viscous - high boiling points
      • Strong Covalent Bonds
        • there are intermolecul-ar forces of attraction also
      • refined by fractional distillation
        • hydrocarbons separated by boiling point
      • various uses
        • petrochemical industry- fuels and lubricants
        • can be used for medicine, plastics, fertilisers and even food
        • the process of making new compounds is called CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
    • Polymerisation
      • polymers form when lots of smaller molecules or monomers join together
      • different polymers have different properties
      • polymers can be the synthetic replacement for many traditional materials
      • chain length
        • short
          • low melting point, flexible, stretch easily
        • long
          • higher melting points, stiffer, cannot be stretched
      • strength of forces
        • strong
          • higher melting points, stiffer, cannot be stretched
        • weak
          • low melting point, flexible, stretch easily
      • crystallinity
        • crystalline = hard, strong, high melting point
        • not crystalline = weak, lower melting point and density
    • Nanotechno-logy
      • 1-100 nanometres across - nanoparticles
      • often designed for a specific use
        • can be natural
          • seaspray
          • combustion
      • added to materials to give them different properties
        • sports (for durability) and medical equipment (silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties)
        • larger surface-area-to-volume ratio - different properties
      • effects on health not fully understood yet

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