C2 - Material Choices

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  • C2 - Material Choices
    • Measuring the properties of materials
      • Natural
        • Made from living things
      • Synthetic
        • Made from chemical synthesis
      • Some properties include: melting points, strength, stiffness, density.
    • Crude Oil
      • Made from hydrocarbons
        • Chain molecules
      • Different hydrocarbons = different boiling points
        • Because molecular chains are different lengths.
        • Force strength increases as length of molecule increases.
          • More energy to break forces - gas.
      • Larger molecules - higher boiling points.
      • Seperated by fractional distilation
        • Each fraction contains a small range of molecule sizes or similar boiling points
      • Used to produce fuels, lubricants and raw materials for chemical synthesis.
    • Polymerisation
      • Monomers joined together to make long molecules called polymers.
      • Using Polmerisation
        • Create wide range of materials.
        • Polyethene
          • Carrier bags
          • Strong and waterproof
        • PVC
          • Window frames
          • Unreactive, doesn't root.
    • Molecular Structure of Materials
      • Rubber
        • Tangled, long-chain molecules.
        • Atoms held together by strong covalent bonds
          • Weak forces between molecules - easily slide over one another
            • Stretchy
        • Low melting point
      • Strong forces between molecules - high melting points
        • Covalent bonds
        • Cross-Linking
          • Molecules can't slide over eachother - rigid.
            • Covalent bonds
          • Cross-Linking
            • Atoms bonding between polymer molecules.
            • Molecules no longer able to move
              • Harder material
            • Vulcanisation
              • Sulfur atoms from cross-links between rubber molecules
              • Vulcanised rubber used from car tyres and conveyor belts
    • Modification in Polymers
      • Increasing Chain Length
        • longer molecules stronger than shorter ones
      • Cross-Linking
        • Atoms bonding between polymer molecules.
        • Molecules no longer able to move
          • Harder material
        • Vulcanisation
          • Sulfur atoms from cross-links between rubber molecules
          • Vulcanised rubber used from car tyres and conveyor belts
      • Plasticisers
        • Softer and more flexible
        • Small molecule that sits between molecules
        • Forces chains further apart
        • Weaker forces - move easier.
      • Crystalline Polymers
        • Packing molecules close together.
        • Intermolecular forces stronger
        • Denser and higher melting point
    • Nanotechnology
      • Nanoscience - the study of materials that are 1-100 nanometres in size
      • The science of building things on a very tiny scale
      • Nanoscale
        • Liposomes
        • Sea Spray
        • Used in sunscreen - good at absorbing UV.
      • Properties
        • Nanotubes and buckyballs - nanoscale objects made of carbon atoms.
        • Nanoparticle electrons move through insulating layers of atoms.
        • Sensitive to light, heat and magnetism
        • Added to glass to repel water and keep them clean.
        • Large surface area compared to volume.
      • Antibacterial Fibres
        • Protect against spread of bacteria and diseases.
          • Silver Nanoparticles
            • Woven into textiles.
              • Lets sweat out, doesn't let water in.
        • Silver Nanoparticles
          • Woven into textiles.
            • Lets sweat out, doesn't let water in.
      • In Sports
        • Golf Clubs
          • Lighter
          • Stronger
            • Nanometal
              • Lighter
              • Crystalline structure
              • Four times stronger than normal metals
        • Golf Balls
          • Straight lines.
        • Tennis Rackets
          • Increased performance
          • Doesn't change weight
      • Evaluating
        • Can be dangerous
          • In water they can be dangerous if consumed
          • May have harmful effects on health
            • Effects may not be apparent for many years.
        • Regulations for development
          • Can be dangerous
            • In water they can be dangerous if consumed
            • May have harmful effects on health
              • Effects may not be apparent for many years.
        • Could be used for:
          • Secure communication systems
          • Detect and eradicate small tumours
          • Diagnose diseases.
          • Surgery that doesn't leave scars

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