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  • C1
    • getting metals from rocks
      • as tech improves, it may be possible to extract more metal from low grade ores
      • copper for wiring cannot be reduced by carbon as it would be too impure
      • bioleaching
        • bacteria used to separate elements and gain energy from bond, which separates out the compound, copper can be filtered from leachate
      • phytomining
        • growing plants in soil that contains copper, builds up in leaves, burn plants and collect copper from ash
      • supply of copper-rich ores is limited
    • aluminium and titanium
      • low density, highly corrosive and low vs high strength
    • alloys
      • a mixture of two or more metals or a mixture of a metal and a non-metal
      • iron
        • high carbon steel- 1.5% carbon - blades for tools
        • iron from a blast furnace - nothing added - ornamental railings - v brittle
        • low carbon steel - 0.1% carbon - car bodies
        • stainless steel - chromium added - cutlery
    • crude oil
      • petrol, kerosene, diesel, oil, bitumen
      • longer chain = lubricant (gloopier) and wont vapourise
      • predictions of reserves running out were wrong as new extraction methods   and oil reserves have been found
      • risk of oil spilling into sea
    • acid rain
      • can be reduced by - reducing fossil fuels burned, remove sulphur from fuel before burning, using scrubbers in power station chimneys to remove SO2
    • polymerisation
      • polymers and corn starch combined to make plastic bags


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