GCSE: OCR gateway: C1: Smells + Paints and Pigments

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  • C1
    • Smells
      • Esters
        • Alcohol + Acid = Ester + Water
        • Made by
          • Acid added to alcohol and heated
            • Condenser stops gas from escaping and helps cool it down so it can react more
              • Condenser allows the reaction to go on for longer
        • Used to make perfumes
      • Perfume properties
        • Evaporate easily so particals can reach the nose and be smelt
        • Non toxic
        • Must not react with water; sweat
        • Must not irritate the skin
        • Insoluable in water so it does not wash off
      • Solutions
        • Mixture of a solvent and a solution that does not separate
        • Esters can be used as solvents
      • Particles
        • To evaporate particals in a liquid need sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the forces of attraction to other molecules in the liquid
          • Only weak attractions exist between particals of the liquid perfume so it is easy to overcome these attractions as they have sufficient kinetic energy
        • Water will not dissolve nail varnish remover
          • The attraction between water molecules is stronger than the attraction between the water molecules and the nail varnish molecules
            • The attraction between nail varnish molecules is stronger than the attraction between water molecules and nail varnish molecules
    • Paints and pigments
      • Collids
        • Paint is a colloid where particals are mix and dispersed with particales of a liquid but is not dissolved.
        • The components of a colloid will not separate because the particals are scattered or dispersed throughout the mixture and are sufficiently so they do not  settle on the bottom
      • Paint drying
        • Dry because
          • Applied as a thin layer
          • Solvent evaporates
            • Emulsion paints; water based
        • Oil paints
          • Solvent evaporates
            • Emulsion paints; water based
          • Oil oxidised by atmospheric oxygen
      • Thermochloric pigments
        • Change colour at different temperatures
        • Uses
          • Thermometers: body temperature indication
          • Cups: Heat indication
          • Electric kettles: safety reasons
          • Baby spoons and toys: warn if too hot for baby
      • Phosphorescent pigments
        • Glow in the dark
          • Absorb and store energy
            • Release energy as light
        • Safer than old radioactive paints


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