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    • The evolution of the universe
      • The volcanos gave out the gases into the atmosphere.
        • The early atmosphere contained mainly carbon dioxide and water vapour.
        • A lot of the carbon dioxide dissolved into the oceans and the green plants also removed some of it from the atmosphere.
        • The oceans were formed when the water vapour condensed and the Earth cooled.
    • The atmosphere today
      • Human activity is changing the atmosphere.
        • We are doing things like burning fuels.
        • We as humans are constantly adding small amounts of pollutants to the air.
        • Nitrogen=78% Oxygen=21% Argon=1%
    • Fossil fuels
      • Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons,which means that they are made of hydrogen and carbon and come from crude oil.
        • Although, coal is not a hydrocarbon. it contains lots of impurities.
      • Burning fossil fuels is an example of oxidation.
        • Oxidation is the addition of oxygen
        • Reduction is when oxygen is removed.
    • Air pollution
      • Carbon pollution can cause a number od different problems
        • Carbon monoxide is the silent killer. Your red blood cells prefer to carry CO rather than oxygen. Its caused by incomplete combustion.
        • Carbon dioxide contributes to global warming. it gets traps heat in our atmosphere, thus causing the world to warm up.
        • Carbon particulates are caused by incomplete combustion and stick to structures such as buildings in a soot form.
      • Sulphur pollution comes from impurities in the fuel.
        • Sulphur causes acid rain, which can affect eco systems and things like statues.
      • Nitrogen pollution involves nitrogen from the air.
        • Nitrogen oxides are nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide
        • Nitrogen monoxide is made in car engines
        • Nitrogen dioxide is made when this nitrogen monoxide meets the oxygen in the air.
          • It can cause acid rain.
    • Reducing pollution
      • We can reduce pollution from power stations.
        • 1. by using less electricity 2.find an alternate energy source.
      • In cars, we can use catalytic converters to reduce emissions
        • A catalytic converter oxidises the carbon monoxide, making it carbon dioxide and reduces the nitrogen monoxide to make nitrogen and oxygen
        • Also in cars, we can use alternate fuels, such as biofuels, made out of plants and natural waste and also electric cars.


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