British Home Front WW1

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    • Censorship & Propaganda
      • Censorship- to prevent enemy contact and keep war morale up by making sure the war was presented in a positive light (to make sure that British people didn't see the German view of the war- they could have been in self-defense)
      • Propaganda- to convince the public of the rightness of the war, cause hatred to the enemy enlist recruits and strengthen allies
        • The main themes were nationalism, hatred of the enemy, commercial advertising women and children's perspectives
        • The main forms were newspaper articles and posters, since they accessed the most amount of people
    • Rationing & the Effects of Submarine Warfare
      • At the outbreak of the war, people started panicking and buying all the food they could get, leading to shortages, but the country soon got into a steady routine of buying less, until the end of 1916
      • Britain was still importing food from America and Canada via the Atlantic Ocean, but in 1917 Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare, so then many of these ships were sunk
      • In April 1916, there was only 6 weeks of wheat left and by October all food prices rose and coal was rationed
      • The restrictions imposed by DORA, and then later the government and Royal family- for the public to voluntary restrict themselves, failed
      • In 1917 the government took over 2.5 million acres, and the Women's Land Army worked on this land to grow more food, since all the young men had been called up
      • By 1918, malnutrition was a danger in poor communities, so rationing was introduced in January 1918, starting with sugar, and then in April, meat, butter, cheese and margarine, as well as ration cards for butchers and grocers
      • Although there were malnutrition and shortages, no-one actually starved during the war
    • Evacuation
      • Although there wasn't government initiative set up, many families on the southern and eastern coasts moved further inland, for fear of a ground attack from continental enemies
    • Changing Role of Women
      • Work
        • They had better pay and conditions, and more memberships to Unions, although the pay was much lower than the men's
        • More than 1.5 million women joined the workforce during the war, as well as over a million volunteering in communities
        • Especially in factories, the risks of hazards were high, they had to work long shifts without breaks, and got given simplised monotonous jobs
      • Politics
        • 1918- women over 30 got the vote, one women became an MP and the Representation of the People Act (women got a say in the Government)
        • 1919- the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act made it ill legal to exclude women from jobs because of their genders, but the Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act meant some women had to stop working because the men were back from war
      • Social- women generally became more liberated (short skirts, short hair and smoking in public)
    • Recruitment & Conscription
      • December 1914- over one million volunteered to fight, but with so many soldiers, there were shortages of uniforms, weapons and equipment
      • 1918- almost 1/4 of total male population served in armed forces
      • Men were encouraged to sign up with friends and colleagues (Pals Battalions)- "those who joined together should serve together"
      • October 1915- Derby Scheme was introduced to ask men to register their commitment to serve, but due to campaigning, single men would be called up before married men
      • Originally the age of enlistment was 19, but in April 1918 it was lowered to 18, but many officers turned a blind-eye to underage volunteers, since they were being paid for more men
      • 1916- conscription was introduced but for unmarried men between 19-41, then in May to include married men, and then by April 1918 men up to 51
        • Conscientious Objectors- men who opposed fighting, either on religious, political or moral (pacifists) grounds, however some were fined and/or imprisoned
          • Some went to the trenches to help, but never fought, and some avoided war altogether (absolutists)
          • A group of Socialist Independent Labour Party and the Quakers made the No-Conscription Fellowship, but were all fined/ imprisoned under DORA
    • Air Raids & Precautions
    • Home Guard


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