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  • BPA
    • Manual stringing
      • advantages
        • cheap
        • easy
        • works with limited data
        • provides a direct illustration
      • disadvantages
        • time consuming
      • strings and pins, clamps and stands are used for manual back-extrapolation to locate origin
        • choose stains close to point of origin
        • choose the larger stains present
    • computer software - stringing
      • backtrack or hemospat
      • advantages
        • quick to perform
        • applicable to most crime scenes
        • accurate results from control experiments
        • results can be viewed from any perspective
    • Determining point of origin
      • once directionality is determined, a point of convergence can be determined
      • Angle of Impact (AOI)
        • width/length = sin AOI
    • Documentation
      • written notes
        • avoid the term "bloodstain" until confirmed
          • details of any presumptive tests
        • colour, size, shape and location of stain
          • stain wet or dry?
            • environmental conditions
      • sketches
        • used to complement photographs
        • give better overall perspective
        • include only essential items
        • useful for clothing
      • photographs
        • best way to document bloodstain patterns
          • overview, approach and close up photos
          • use labels, arrows, numbered markers, scales
    • Conclusions
      • many benefits to BPA in terms of event reconstruction
        • gives indication of nature of offence, the sequence of events
          • dependant on accurate records from scene
        • open to debate
        • continually evolving science in order to prove hypotheses


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