Anatomy and Principles of Exercise

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  • Skeletal System
    • Structure of a bone
      • Compact bone
        • main shaft of the bone
      • Spongy Bone
        • (cancellous bone) at the ends of the bone
      • Red marrow
        • Cavity
          • Production of RBC/ WBC
      • Periosteum
        • Covers the bone
      • Hyaline or articular cartilage
        • Prevent friction
    • Bone classifications
      • Long bone
        • Movement
          • Femur
      • Short bone
        • Movement/ strength
          • metacarpals
      • Irregular bone
        • Protection
          • Sacrum
      • Flat Bone
        • Muscle attachment
          • Scapular
    • Functions
      • Movement
      • Protection
      • Shape
      • Storage of minerals
      • Blood cell prouction
    • Two Sections
      • Appendicular
        • 126 bones
        • Provides movement
      • Axial
        • 80 bones
        • Provides protection
    • Cartilage (at the end of bones)
    • Ligaments (bones attached to other bones)
      • Tendons (bones attach to muscle
    • Anatomy and Principles of Training
      • Muscular system
        • 3 Types
          • Cardiac
            • Volunatry
              • Involuntary
        • Functions
          • Heat
          • Movement
          • Posture
          • Joint stability
        • Structure
          • Tendon
          • MY EXTRA FAT PENIS EJACTULATES
          • Muscle fibre
          • Epimysium
          • Facilies
          • Perimysium
          • Endomysium
        • Definitions
          • Agonist
            • Working muscle
          • Antagonist
            • Relaxing muscle
          • Fixator
            • Fixes muscle in place
          • Synergist
            • Assisstent
        • Muscle fibres
          • Type 1
            • Slow oxidative fibres
              • Red
                • lots of mitochondria
                  • endurance type
          • Type IIb
            • fast glycolytic fibres
              • white
                • low numbers of mitochondria
                  • Strength/ anaerobic type
          • Type IIa
            • fast oxidative glycoltic fibres
              • Pink
                • more mitochondria than type IIb
                  • intermediate fibres assist type 1 and type IIb
        • Definitions
          • Concentric
            • Shortens
          • Eccentric
            • Lengthens
          • Isometric
            • Same length
          • Isotonic
            • Concentric + eccentric
      • Circulatory system
        • Structure
          • Top chambers: Atria
            • supply blood
          • Bottom two chambers: ventricles
            • pump blood
          • Veins
            • carry deoxygenated blood
          • Artieries
            • carry oxygenated blood
      • Respiratory system
        • Structure
          • Nose
            • Pharynx
              • Larynx
                • Trachea
                  • Bronchus
                    • Bronchioles
                      • Alveoli
                        • Diaphragm
        • Gaseous Exchange
          • Diffusion
            • exchange of gases (co2 and o2) within the lungs
          • Normal air
            • 78% Nitrogen
            • 21% Oxygen
            • 0.04% co2
      • Digestion
        • Food
          • Digestion
            • Absorption into blood and transported
              • Active cells
                • Immediate usage
        • Carbohydrate
          • Glucose
            • Stored as glycogen
              • ATP
        • Fat
          • Fatty acids
            • stored as adipose tissue
              • ATP
        • Protein
          • Amino Acid
            • Growth and repair of tissue (stored as food)
              • ATP
      • Blood Pressure
        • Normal
          • 120/80
        • Pre hypertension
          • 120-139/ 80- 89
        • Stage 1 hypertension
          • 140- 159/ 90- 99
        • Stage 2 hypertension
          • +160/ 100
      • Nervous System
        • Structure
          • CNS
            • PNS
              • Somatic
              • Autonomic
                • Sympathetic
                  • Muscle contractions
                • Parasympathetic
        • Neuron
          • 1. Dendrites
            • 2. Axon
              • 3. Myelin Sheath
                • Untitled
    • Joints
      • Saddle joint
      • Condyloid joint
      • Gliding joint
      • Ball and socket joint
      • Pivot joint
      • Hinge joint
    • Movements
      • Flexion
      • Extension
      • Abduction
      • Adduction
      • Circumduction
      • Protraction
      • Elevation
      • Depression
      • Pronation
      • Supination
      • Dorsiflexion
      • Plantarflexion
      • Rotation
    • Vertebral Colcumn
      • Cervicl curve
        • 7 bones
      • Thoracic Curve
        • 12 bones
      • Lumbar Curve
        • 5 bones
      • Sacral Curve
        • 4 bones
      • Functions
        • Support
          • Trunk and head
        • Protection
          • Spinal Cord
      • Intervertebral disc
        • Absorbs shock
      • Conditions
        • Lordosis
          • Curve of the lumbar
        • Kyphosis
          • Curve of the cervical
        • Scoliosis
          • Curve of spine side ways
    • Bone growth
      • Need good supply of blood
        • bring nutrients and o2 and get rid of waste
      • Needs nerves
        • send information to brain about pain or damage
      • Bones at birth are mainly cartilage
        • As the skeleton matures, magnesium and calcium are deposited within cartilage by osteoblasts
          • Also know as OSSFICATION

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