The blood system

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  • Blood system
    • arteries convey blood at high pressure from the ventricles to the tissue of the body
      • elastic tissue that contains elastin fibres
      • smooth muscles that contract
    • Arteries have muscle and elastin fibres in their walls
      • tunica externa - connective tissue
      • tunica media - smooth muscle and elastic fibres
      • tunica intima - lining of the artery
    • The muscle and elastic fibres assist in maintaining blood pressure between pump cycles
      • systolic pressure
        • peak pressure
      • vasoconstriction - increases blood pressure
    • blood flows through tissues in capillaries with permeable walls that allow exchange of materials between cells in the tissue and the blood in the capillary
    • veins collect blood at low pressure from the tissues of the body and return it to the atria of the heart
    • Valves in veins and the heart ensure circulation of blood by preventing backflow
      • pocket valves
    • there is a separate circulation for the lungs
      • pulmonary circulation
      • systemic circulation
    • the heartbeat is initiated by a group of specialised muscle cells in the right atrium called the sinoatrial node
      • myogenic contraction
      • sinoatrial node - group of cells


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